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What is the difference between working stress approach and limit state approach?

For working stress approach, service loads are used in the whole design and the strength of material is not utilized in the full extent. In this method of design, stresses acting on structural members are calculated based on elastic method and they are designed not to exceed certain allowable values. In fact, the whole structure during the lifespan may only experience loading stresses far below…
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Procedure for Design of Abutments

A series of steps must be followed to obtain a satisfactory design. STEP 1: SELECT PRELIMINARY PROPORTIONS OF THE WALL. STEP 2: DETERMINE LOADS AND EARTH PRESSURES. STEP 3: CALCULATE MAGNITUDE OF REACTION FORCES ON BASE. STEP 4: CHECK STABILITY AND SAFETY CRITERIAa.
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What is influence line Diagram? difference between bending moment diagram and influence line diagram

Concept of Influence line was developed by Winkler in 1867. Influence Diagram concept is used for analysis of structures that are subjected to variable or moving loads. Structures like bridges, culverts and even roofs of a house is also such structures that have live and moving loads. Definition Influence line is defined as; “a graph of a response function of a structure as a function of the…
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Design of Flat Plate Slab [pdf]

Structural Concrete Slabs are constructed to provide flat surfaces, usually horizontal, in building floors, roofs, bridges, and other types of structures. The slab may be supported by walls, by reinforced concrete beams usually cast monolithically with the slab, by…
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What is slab?

Structural Concrete Slabs are constructed to provide flat surfaces, usually horizontal, in building floors, roofs, bridges, and other types of structures. The slab may be supported by walls, by reinforced concrete beams usually cast monolithically with the slab, by structural steel beams, by columns, or by the ground. The depth of a slab is usually very small compared to its span. What is a slab?
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Design of Bridges Excel Sheets Free Download

To provide a passage over an obstacle like a water body, a valley, canal or a road structure is built across that obstacle to span a space and allow the easy movement of the concerned bodies over those obstacles, such a structure is named as bridge. There are different types of bridges having different portions and parts but I will not be covering those parts and types here. Today I will be…
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