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We drive on highways and use public amenities such as streets and sidewalks frequently but we don’t think about them very much and we take them for granted at least until something serious happens that make us think about the rights we have on them. 

Civil Engineers work a lot with such highways and infrastructure projects including public footpath, rail transport, canals as well as electrical transmission lines, oil and gas pipelines. All these infrastructures are constructed on a piece of land that is acquired by Government agencies or Government Local Bodies. Right-of-way often written in short form as ROW is actually a type of easement granted or a reserved piece of land in an area for transportation purposes. In other words it’s an earmarked land to get or grant access (for vehicles or for utility lines etc.) from one piece of land to another piece of land. 

What is Right of Way (ROW)? Types and Importance
What is Right of Way (ROW)? Types and Importance 

Importance of Right of Way

The Right of Way (ROW) is significantly important to understand for projects where a private property owned by person or organization meets public property owned by government sectors and departments. 

Every construction project starts with a preliminary and reconnaissance survey and annexation of Right of Way survey in there is a must as the Project Kickoff might get affected due to land acquisition issues due to lack of planning and management.

This term of Right Of Way is mostly dealt in transportation engineering, all types of roads including interstate highway, distributaries, express ways, motorways; all have a right-of-way which is actually a planned extended width acquired for future expansions of the project. Which means if the residential street is 30-36 feet wide the city may own a total of 46-50+ feet wide area? This total land acquired for the project is termed as Right of Way (ROW) of the Project.
  
Right of Way is also associated with land usage right and is often used by land surveyors and Civil Engineers in the preliminary survey. 

Examples of Right of Way


  • A driveway can be regarded as Right of Way that allows your neighbors living near your house, who have no access to a public walkway, to access the street across your land. 
  • A right of way that allows services such as gas, water, electricity, telephone and drainage to pass through neighboring land.


Why Right of Way? 


  1. As already explained above that acquiring of land more than the typical design width of the highway has a reason and purpose behind as listed below :
  2. A right-of-way can be used to build a bike trail. 
  3. A right-of-way is reserved for the purposes of maintenance or expansion of existing services with the right-of-way. 
  4. In the case of an easement, it may revert to its original owners if the facility is abandoned.
  5. Street lights, traffic signals and street parking are all in the Right of Way.


Type of Right of Way

Here are some of the typical types of ROW considered in construction and infrastructure projects :- 

  1. Private Right of Way
  2. Property Right of Way
  3. Public Right of Way
  4. Pipeline Right of Way

Property Right of Way

Property Right of Way is an easement allowing a person to reach different locations through a property owned by other person. This type of ROW is common when access to a public area such as a swamp or lake or river is only possible through a property owned by an individual. 

Private Right of Way

A Private Right of Way is a type of ROW that allows an individual access to a property owned by another person to reach a public road. This type of ROW is common for properties that are landlocked and impossible to access by foot or by vehicle without going through another person's property.

Public Right of Way

Public Right of Way is a type of ROW that allows the public to travel over a private piece of land unhindered. This type of ROW is in reference to sidewalks and roads that are adjacent to private land.

Pipeline Right of Way

This Right of Way allows services such as gas and electricity to use a private piece of land to run pipelines that are vital to its operations. This type of ROW is permanently attached to the deed of the property and details the restriction on the use of the land where the ROW is located.

3D Laser scanning technology that is also sometimes referred as high definition surveying (HDS), is a method of digitally capturing and collecting surface data with extreme precision using a beams of laser scanner which quickly captures the highly accurate distance of densely-scanned points over a given object. Laser scanning is a technology of high-accuracy mapping hence it is called reality capturing.

3D Laser Scanning in Construction
3D Laser Scanning in Construction 


Just like 360 degree panoramas of a building with accurate position for every pixel this process is commonly referred to as a point cloud survey or as light detection and ranging (LIDAR, a combination of the words 'light' and 'radar').

Emerging of 3D Laser Scanning

Laser Scanning Technology has emerged as a useful tool in documenting existing conditions of buildings. The main application for such documentation is to assess current as-built conditions of existing mostly historical buildings. The technology can also be used as an integral part of construction progress industry.

Some of the instruments available in the market comprises of high-speed lasers with integrated camera that uses color coding mounted on a tripod. Such instruments can be operated upto a range of 180 meters and at speeds of upto 990,000 points per second making a cloud. These points are then used to generate 3D imagery which can be converted for use in 3D computer aided design (CAD) modeling or building information modeling (BIM). Most of the CAD and BIM Softwares in market allow their systems to import the point cloud data into 3D visual graphic material.

Applications of 3D Laser Scanning

Whether you're delivering scan data of comprehensive as-built documentation, performing comprehensive data analysis or creating a renovation model based on an existing structure or realistic project scheduling or system clash avoidance; laser technology is on its way to become the standard in the Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Virtual Design and Construction (VDC). Laser scanning provides an efficient method for surveying inaccessible surfaces as well as complex geometry.

In the construction industry market we now have contractor that work as virtual design and construction contractors that can run your project virtually on computer simulations from excavation to finishing of a building, the complete outlook of the construction activities involve enhances the planning process thereby completely eliminating the chances of mistakes and errors.

BIM & 3D Laser Scanning

The need of BIM and Laser Technology owes its presences to the fact that on a typical construction project, rework accounts for 12 to 15 percent of the cost of construction. Thus by the introduction of laser technology the rework reduces to 1-3 percent and the ability to catch conflicts before they happen makes laser scanning as a fast emerging need of the industry.

Laser scanners record up to a million of points per second, each with an x,y and z co-ordinate. As scanners work using a line of sight, the scan will only record what you can see, so In order to gain full coverage of a building, multiple scan set-ups need to be taken at various locations.

Laser scanning has proved to be much quicker, more accurate and cheaper than conventional survey measurement. The accuracy of the process depends on the steadiness of the instrument base and the distance from the object. Close range objects achieve sub millimetre accuracy. For normal terrestrial survey work + or – 2mm per 100m is a good guide to accuracy. Greater distances of 2 kms may be accurate to + or – 50mm.

Deterrents to Adoption of 3d Laser Scanning

The technology is still early in the adoption cycle while the 3D scanning market has reportedly grown 25 – 30% over the last five years. Because traditional surveying methods are more cost effective on some projects, it may be difficult to determine when to make the leap to laser scanning.
If a company has not yet adopted designing and constructing in 3D, it may be difficult to “buy-in” to laser scanning. Lastly, like other 3D technologies in the marketplace, there are integration challenges involved with laser scanning.

While the construction industry is often considered to be a slow adopter of new technology, design and construction professionals are challenging themselves to build projects faster and cheaper with the use of technologies like BIM, tablets, and custom-designed apps.

A less publicized technology in the adoption phase is 3D laser scanning. Engineering and consulting firms are recognizing the benefits laser scanning can bring to their clients and operations.

Benefits of Laser Scanning

3D laser scanning benefits for the construction industry far outweigh the added cost. One of its biggest perks is its versatility throughout a project.

Despite slow adoption, 3D scanning currently serves a number of purposes and is used in a variety of industries. 3D scanning uses range from roadway and bridge surveying to process plant maintenance and retrofit projects to bridge and building deformation monitoring. Some areas where 3D scanning is currently in use are discussed further below.

Renovators and other builders are able to utilize 3D laser scanning to create personalized verifications and blueprints in a safer and faster method. Additional uses for builders include:

  1. Transportation
  2. Improved Planning & Design
  3. Building & Infrastructure 
  4. Safety & Regulatory Compliance
  5. Costing and Scheduling

Transportation

3D Laser scanning finds it application in the construction and maintenance of highway transportation projects including bridges and roadways. With Laser Scanning the highway engineers can do road topography surveying, the horizontal and vertical profiling of the roadway surface, paving volume calculations, intersection surveys, as-builts for bridges, bridge damages assessments and retrofitting and archiving the historical bridges and landmarks. 3D scanning is also utilized in the maintenance and construction of tunnels, airports, rail, and ports and harbors.

Improved Planning & Design


As discussed above the Virtual Design Construction and BIM Model using Point cloud based as-built drawings and 3D models can minimize site clashes by improving design or by evaluating alternative designs prior to construction. The accurateness of dimensions obtained from laser scans can also help improve planning by providing exact measurements for demolition and removal of components, as well as for prefabricated materials, minimizing waste and changes in the field.

Building & Infrastructure 

One of the mostly faced snags and difficulties that are encountered during renovation projects is incomplete or inaccurate as-built drawings for an existing building. 3D laser scans can be used to develop accurate 3D models of the interior and exterior of existing buildings, which can aide in planning and designing future additions and renovations.

Safety & Regulatory Compliance


Laser scanning methods are often safer than manual data capture methods and are increasingly being used to help comply with health, safety and environmental imperatives. The remote sensing ability and quick data capture of laser scanners reduces a crew’s exposure to harmful environments. For example, 3D scanning can be used in completing land surveys without the need to stop one car. Furthermore, in nuclear power plants, laser scanning can help reduce the size of and the time crews are exposed to high radiation areas.

Costing and Scheduling


A term associated with the BIM stage 2 is called 5D BIM Models and the 5th dimension in that model is its ability in preparation of Cost & schedule of material and rates. It’s been reported that 3D scanning can reduce total project costs by as much as 5 – 7% and the schedule by as much as 10% on industrial projects.

Further...???

Find here how Malaysia have get benefits from BIM in the Construction of Mass Transit Project a Case study.

Malaysia to Experience Benefits of BIM and Cloud Technology in Mass Rapid Transit Project

References 

http://www.itcon.org/papers/2016_14.content.09623.pdf
http://constructrealityxyz.com/test/ebook/LGS_AU_When%20to%20Use%20Laser%20Scanning.pdf


The applications for appointments on adhoc basis against the following vacant posts in Mayo Hospital (Lahore) are invited. The candidates fulfilling the prescribed qualification / criteria as shown against each category of post should apply along with attested two sets of photocopies of their testimonials (from Matric Certificate to onward along with domicile and N.I.C) and their applications should must reached  in this office upto 20-11-2017

Recruitment of Civil Engineering Staff for Surgical Tower, Mayo Hospital, Lahore November, 2017
Recruitment of Civil Engineering Staff for Surgical Tower, Mayo Hospital, Lahore November, 2017

Name of Post: Executive Engineer BS-18 (Civil) 

Number of Post: 01 
Age limit 28-35 
B.Sc Engineering / B.E. Civil Engineering as in relaxation to vacancies to be filled or an equivalent qualification from a university / institution recognized by the Pakistan Engineering Council and Registered as Professional Engineering with the Pakistan Engineering Council except in a case where Section 28 (B) of the Pakistan Engineering Council Act, 1976 (V of 1976) applies. 
Having 5 years service against post in BS-17

Sub-Engineer BS-11 (Civil) 

No. of Posts :06
Age Limit 18-25 
Three year Diploma of Associate Engineer (Civil or  Mechanical as in relation to vacancies to be filled or equivalent qualification from a recognized institute). 

Self Addressed posted envelope must be enclosed with the application form. 

Dr. Tahir Khalil
Medical Superintendent 
Mayo Hospital, Lahore



This Civil Engineering Jobs in  Surgical Tower, Mayo Hospital is best opportunity for experienced Civil Engineers. All Civil Engineering jobs in Islamabad is collected from different Newspapers on every Sunday and shared for our viewers so that that can apply for the job and get the employment in Surgical Tower, Mayo Hospital  as Civil Engineer. These Jobs are for the Building Engineering So you must have experience in Building and Highways 

We have prepared a group on Facebook where you can get the alerts about Jobs in Surgical Tower, Mayo Hospital  If you know any job opportunity in Private Sector both permanent Jobs and Jobs on contract basis you can contact us, you can inform us about the job.


If you are a fresh or experienced civil engineer living in Pakistan and seeking Civil Engineering Job in Building Engineering than don’t post or share your CV here as we are not a part of the department and we are just sharing it so that you can get the opportunity to apply for this job.

Civil Engineering Jobs in Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC) November, 2017

Post Title: Executive Engineer (BS-18)

Temporary, Gilgit Baltistan Council Secretariat, Islamabad
Qualification: Second Class or Grade “C” Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering or equivalent from a recognized university.
Experience : Five years post qualification experience in Civil Engineering in a responsible position equivalent to BS-17 in Govt./Semi Govt./Reputable Private Organization
Age Limit: 25-35 years plus 5 years general relaxation in upper age limit.
Domicile: Punjab : (Both Male & Female candidates are eligible)



Title of Position: Engineering Adviser (Civil) BS-20

Temporary likely to continue, Office of the Chief Engineering Adviser/chairman Federal Flood commission, Ministry of Water and Power

Minimum Qualification: Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering or equivalent qualification from a recognized university/Institution.

Experience : Seventeen (17) years post qualification experience in Planning, Design or Operation of Dams, Irrigation System or Hydraulic Works in BS-17 and above or equivalent in a Government/Semi-Government / reputable private organization.

Maximum Age: 45 years plus 5 years general relaxation in upper age limit. (Note Age relaxation admissible to Government Servant is up to the age of 55 years).
Domicile: Punjab (both male & female candidates are eligible)



Submit online application through www.fpsc.gov.pk
Closing date for submission of application is Monday, 20th November, 2017.


Amir Tariq Zaman 
Secretary 
Federal Public Service Commission

Civil Engineering Jobs in Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC) November, 2017
Add caption


This Civil Engineering Jobs in  Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC)  is best opportunity for experienced Civil Engineers. All Civil Engineering jobs in Islamabad is collected from different Newspapers on every Sunday and shared for our viewers so that that can apply for the job and get the employment in Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC)  as Civil Engineer. These Jobs are for the Building Engineering So you must have experience in Building and Highways 

We have prepared a group on Facebook where you can get the alerts about Jobs in Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC)  If you know any job opportunity in Private Sector both permanent Jobs and Jobs on contract basis you can contact us, you can inform us about the job.

If you are a fresh or experienced civil engineer living in Pakistan and seeking Civil Engineering Job in Building Engineering than don’t post or share your CV here as we are not a part of the department and we are just sharing it so that you can get the opportunity to apply for this job.

Applications are invited for the following positions by Redco International, Qatar
1. Project Manager Civil
2. Project Manager MEP
3. Construction Manager Civil

Interested candidates can send their CV’s with recent photographs on
hr@redcoint.com & redcopakistan@gmail.com

Civil Engineering Jobs in Redco International for Qatar Projects
Civil Engineering Jobs in Redco International for Qatar Projects 


This Civil Engineering Jobs in  Redco International for Qatar Projects  is best opportunity for experienced Civil Engineers. All Civil Engineering jobs in Qatar is collected from different Newspapers on every Sunday and shared for our viewers so that that can apply for the job and get the employment in Redco International for Qatar Projects  as Civil Engineer. These Jobs are for the Building Engineering So you must have experience in Building and Highways 

We have prepared a group on Facebook where you can get the alerts about Jobs in Redco International for Qatar Projects. If you know any job opportunity in Private Sector both permanent Jobs and Jobs on contract basis you can contact us, you can inform us about the job.





If you are a fresh or experienced civil engineer living in Pakistan and seeking Civil Engineering Job in Building Engineering than don’t post or share your CV here as we are not a part of the department and we are just sharing it so that you can get the opportunity to apply for this job.

Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority requires services of qualified individuals to fill the vacant posts where selection will be made purely on suitability and merit.

Civil Engineering Jobs in Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) November, 2017
Civil Engineering Jobs in Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) November, 2017


Project Director (EG-09) 

Type: 1 Post on merit Contract of 2 years (renewable)
Pay: 78,900-7,990-236,700
Salary: Rs.345,278/- per month (Negotiable)
Qualification : B.E. / B.Sc Civil Engineering from HEC Recognized University
Experience: 

  • minimum 20 years of experience with 10 years in similar capacity at administration and managing mega projects. 
  • Experience of handling negotiation management and conflict management issues effectively. 
  • Experience in participating in high level operational initiative, infrastructure design / development & capital works follow-up. 
  • Experience of overseeing major roads, runways and airport terminal projects would be given extra weight age. 


Skill: 

  • Hands-on experience of Primavera and other project management tools & techniques. 
  • Having in-depth knowledge of infrastructure development of varied nature. 
  • Possessing vision and leadership skills to plan, handle and manage mega infrastructure development projects with ability and interpersonal skill to lead a team of highly experienced and professional staff. 

Age: Maximum 57 years (including all age relaxations)



Additional Director Civil (EG-07)

Type: 1 Post on merit Contract of 2 years (renewable)
Pay: 61,700-6,170-185,100
Salary: Rs. 277,940 /- per month (negotiable)
Qualification: B.E / B.Sc / B.S in Civil Engineering from HEC Recognized University
Must be registered with Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC)
Experience : Minimum 15 years of experience with 10 years in similar capacity in large scale construction projects
Experience in contract management of mega / large scale projects.
Skills : Knowledge of contracting and negotiations.

  • Having in depth knowledge of PPRA and CPWD Procedures and codes.
  • Possessing skills of efficient project Mangement 
  • Vision & leadership skills to lead the teams of the project
  • Having ability to execute the contracts within the stipulated timelines.
  • Strong analytical, creative, presentation and management abilities. 

Age: Maximum 50 years (including all age relaxations)

Application Procedure : 


  • Interested candidates are required to fill and submit online application form available at www.caapakistan.com.pk within 15 days of publication of this advertisement. 
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The structural use of Brick Masonry has to some extent been hampered by its long history as a craft based material and some years ago its disappearance as a structural material was being predicted. The fact that this has not happened is a result of the inherent advantages of brickwork and the design of brick masonry structures has shown steady development, based on the results of continuing research in many countries.

Download Design of Masonry Structures PDF by A.W. Hendry, B.P. Sinha and S.R. Davies
Download Design of Masonry Structures PDF by A.W. Hendry, B.P. Sinha and S.R. Davies


Nevertheless, structural brickwork is not used as widely as it could be and one reason for this lies in the fact that design in this medium is not taught in many engineering schools alongside steel and concrete. To help to improve this situation, the authors have written this book especially for students in university and polytechnic courses in structural engineering and for young graduates preparing for professional examination in structural design.

The text attempts to explain the basic principles of brickwork design, the essential properties of the materials used, the design of various structural elements and the procedure in carrying out the design of a complete building. In practice, the basic data and methodology for structural design in a given material is contained in a code of practice and in illustrating design procedures it is necessary to relate these to a particular document of this kind.

In the present case the standard referred to, and discussed in some detail, is the British BS 5628 Part 1, which was first published in 1978. This code is based on limit state principles which have been familiar to many designers through their application to reinforced concrete design but which are summarized in the text.

Title of the Book


Design of Masonry Structures

Authors of the Book


A.W. Hendry, B.P. Sinha and S.R. Davies

Contents of the Book


1. Load Bearing Masonry Buildings
2. Bricks, blocks and mortars
3. Masonry Properties
4. Codes of Practice for structural masonry
5. Design for Compressive loading
6. Design for wind loading
7. Lateral load analysis of masonry panels
8. Composite action between walls and other elements
9. Design for accidental damage
10. Reinforced Masonry
11. Prestressed Masonry
12. Design calculations for a seven-storey dormitory building according to BS 5628
13. Movements in masonry buildings
14. References.

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FURTHER...?

If you have downloaded the book and want further study relevant to brick masonry than you can follow the following links relevant to brick masonry.
What is Brick Masonry?
Comparison Between Stone Masonry And Brick Masonry
Different Types of Bonds used in Brick Masonry

MKRdezign

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