So I am glad that you have asked me “what a waffle slab system is?” – You have asked this question because waffle slab is not that common throughout the world. Its not like a flat slab which is here and there i.e. everywhere – and 90% chance is that the slab shielding you from blue sky above you would also be a flat slab. So as it is not that common; that’s why the people don’t know what is flat slab or how flat slab is constructed or what are the benefits one can drive from kicking in the flat slab. 

I have used the word flat slab – and by that I mean the slab that has leveled surface from both top and soffit. Now here I need to clarify that this article will not treat waffle slab foundation – which is another building element used in high cyclonic and windy areas but that is out of the scope of this article. We would be restricting ourselves to understand the waffle slab used as roof slab in buildings. However, the basic terminologies and concept of both roof slab and foundation are similar in nature.  


Difference between ribbed Slab and Waffle Slab

The waffle slab is also sometimes termed as ribbed slab system but you would find it interesting to know that ribbed and waffle slab are somehow two different things. When one says ribbed slab it is actually a one way spanning system with ribs where as in waffle slab the joists form a two –way system.   

Waffle slabs are usually deeper than ribbed slab but they have a thin topping slab with narrow ribs. However, column heads or band beams are of the same depth as the ribs. (To know about column heads or band beams read ahead) 

So going back to the basic question that what is waffle slab? 

What is Waffle Slab? 


The Waffle slab system can be called as a two – way joist slab system which comprises of ribs constructed in perpendicular direction. 

Waffle slabs are most suitable for construction of slabs with long span. Slabs that have span greater than 16m can make use of a waffle slab design. This waffled feature in slabs will help to take up heavy loads. Actually the introduction of support hoists made waffle slab very stiff. Technically speaking stiffness is actually the force that is required to produce unit deflection in a structure so if greater the force required that structure would be more stiff and vice versa. 

What is Waffle Slab?
What is Waffle Slab? 

The figure-1 above shows a completed waffle slab. Waffle slab construction will give the underside of the slab structure a different type of aesthetic appearance. The slab will have a waffle appearance underside, but the top surface of the slab will be smooth. 

 Must to Read

Construction Procedure for Waffle Slab


The waffle slabs construction follows two methods:

  1. Waffle slab with Solid Heads
  2. Waffle slab with Band Beams

The former type will have solid heads at the joints with columns. This provision is made to bear the shear requirements faced during the loading conditions.  In the second type of construction a wide solid beam is provided along the centre line of the column which will facilitate the structure to have a uniform depth.
               
 (a) Waffle Slabs with Solid Heads (b) Waffle slab with Band Beams
 (a) Waffle Slabs with Solid Heads (b) Waffle slab with Band Beams


Methodology of Construction for Waffle Slab


In waffle slab the waffles are formed as domes like structure which in general are of standard dimension of 483mm if the ribs are having a width of 127mm and the module formed will have a dimension of 610mm. For ribs with depth 152mm, the domes of dimension 762mm can be used. So we can conclude from this that size of the dome depends on the depth of the ribs or joists. 
During the design and construction, it is recommended to avoid the domes near to the columns or near to its vicinity. In practice, the ribs are connected from the columns and beams. 
The number of domes formed will vary based on the span length and the loading conditions. This would also affect the number of solid strips that are running between the columns in both the perpendicular directions.

As mentioned in the introduction, the waffle slab forms a combination of ribs or grillage that are running parallel and perpendicular to each other. This hence forms an orthogonal assembly. This arrangement will have voids between the ribs. These voids can be either square or round or any dimension based on the construction pods used. 

The pods are actually unit of formwork that are evenly spaced spacers and are usually made of plastic. The pod can be square, cellular EPS blocks or lightweight material as well. After installation of pods reinforcement is fixed with steel mesh and then filled with concrete.

Economy in Waffle Slab System

The economy in waffle slab construction is attained by having maximum repetition of the forms and sizes used in construction. More economy can be achieved if we make use of standard size for formation. Any change in the size can bring economy by bringing small changes in depths, spacings, and thickness.

Other than bringing economy in construction, the waffle slab system helps in yielding structurally and thus will improve the efficiency of the materials used in the slab, i.e. the steel and the concrete material. Higher speed in construction with increased versatility is another important significance of waffle slab construction system. 

Advantages of Waffle Slab

The main advantages of waffle slabs are mentioned below:
1. Highly economical in construction when compared with conventional slab construction
2. These types of slabs can take up higher amount of dead and other loads coming efficiently.
3. Different applications are in hotels, theatre, show rooms and halls where it is necessary to have large column void spaces.
4. Waffle slab prove to be attractive both structurally and aesthetically
Different Waffle Slab Construction Technique
The method used in the construction of waffle slab vary from time to time. The main two methods are:

  • Traditional Construction
  • Pre-cast construction technique

Each time, the ease of construction is increased. In the case of traditional construction method, the steps involved are the:

  • Storage of the materials
  • The supports are established
  • The formwork will be established at the site
  • Reinforcement is cut and tied at the site as per the specifications
  • Insertion of a steel cylinder into this arrangement is made to make the voids in the slabs
  • Final stage is grouting, concreting and curing. This is followed by formwork removal 

The above mentioned traditional method will consume large amount of manpower, resources and time. This resulted in the evolution of precast method for the construction of waffle slab system. This minimizes most of the problems related with the site.

In case of precast construction, proper planning is initially made to construct precast units at the precast plant. With the increase in the production of the components of the waffle slabs, the assembling at the site will also increase. The pre-casted waffle slab units are assembled at the site using hoisting machines and cranes. The concrete is poured into the formwork with utmost accuracy. 

This procedure is conducted by placing the machine at proper altitude and position. The main factors that are taken into consideration to facilitate the structural integrity and economy of the waffle slab construction.


Reference:

1. Optimum Design of Reinforced Concrete Waffle Slabs, waffle slabs A, , Volume 1, No 4, 2011 ,International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering
2. Structural Design Guide to the ACI Building Code, Edward S. Hoffman, ‎David P. Gustafson, ‎Albert J. Gouwens 
3. Reinforced Concrete: Design theory and examples - B.S. Choo, ‎T.J. MacGinley 
4. The Architect's Studio Companion, Edward Allen, ‎Joseph Iano 

Irrigation Department  of the Punjab is a Government deprtment with over with over 52,000 employees of the Provincial Irrigation Department. It is aimed to do river and riverain surveys, barrages construction work and canal works, tubewels flood control and protection schemes, drainage schemes and construction of reservoirs. 

In most of the cases the recruitment in Irrigation department is conducted through punjab public service commission for scrutinizing and screening the perfect candidates for the post. 

50 Posts for Permanent Job in Punjab Irrigation Department for Freshers & Experienced Civil Engineers 2018


Detail of Job


Company: Irrigation Department, Government of Punjab, Pakistan 
Type of Job: Permanent Basis
Title / Designation: Assistant Executive Engineer / Sub Divisional Officer / Assistant Design Engineer / Assistant Design Officer / Assistant Director Flood Monitoring / Assistant Director 
No. of Posts : 50 Posts
Qualification : B.Sc. Engineering or B.E. Civil or any equivalent qualification from university or institute recognized by Pakistan engineering council and 
Registered as “Engineer” with Pakistan Engineering Council, except in a case where section 28b of the PEC act, 1976 (V of 1976) applies.
Age : Male 21 to 30+5 = 35 years
Female : 21 to 30 +8 = 38 years
Disabled = 21 to 30 +10 = 40 years
Gender : Male, Female & Shemale 
Domicile : All Punjab Basis
Place of Posting : Anywhere in Punjab
Syllabus : One paper MCQ type written of 100 marks and 90 minutes duration. Syllabus is as under :- 

  • Design of Hydraulic structures, Barrages, Fall, Canal, head regulator / design of river training works spur Embankments, apron, pitch etc. 
  • Design of roof slab / design and working of various types of outlets / draw off / capacity statement / discharge measurement of canal. 
  • Questions relating to general knowledge including Pakistan studies, current affairs, geography, basic mathematics, english, urdu everyday science and basic computer studies. 


How to apply : 

Applicants are required to submit “online application form” by the closing date of 20-feb-2018 upto 12:00 am Midnight. Applicants should fill in the online application form carefully in the light of the guidelines and instructions mentioned in the advertisement for the said post and “Important instructions to candidates”
Note: negative markingi s there
It is mandatory for applicants to deposit : Rs. 600 under head “C02101-organizations of State-test fee realized by the Punjab Public Service Commission”. In any branch of state bank of Pakistan or NBP or Government Treasury on or before the closing date


Contact 

Mirza Naseer Inayat
Secretary
042-111-988-722
www.ppsc.gop.pk



This Civil Engineering Jobs in  Irrigation Department, Lahore, Pakistan is best opportunity for experienced & Fresh Civil Engineers. All Civil Engineering jobs in Punjab Irrigation Department, Lahore, Pakistan is collected from different Newspapers on every Sunday and shared for our viewers so that that can apply for the job and get the employment in Punjab Irrigation Department, Lahore, Pakistan as Civil Engineer. These Jobs are for the Irrigation Sector So you must have experience in Irrigation Projects and Hydropower Sector

We have prepared a group on Facebook where you can get the alerts about Jobs in Punjab Irrigation department, Lahore, PakistanIf you know any job opportunity in Private Sector both permanent Jobs and Jobs on contract basis you can contact us, you can inform us about the job.





If you are a fresh or experienced civil engineer living in Pakistan and seeking Civil Engineering Job in Highway Engineering than don’t post or share your CV here as we are not a part of the department and we are just sharing it so that you can get the opportunity to apply for this job.

Concrete slabs are one of the most common structural elements of modern buildings and infrastructures including residential, commercial plazas, hospitals or buildings having industrial significance. Typically 4 to 20 inches of reinforced concrete mat like element is constructed as roof ceilings or floors for interior while thinner slabs are used for exterior paving roadway. 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Flat Slab?
Advantages and Disadvantages of Flat Slab?

[Download ##download##]
Depending on loading conditions, bearing capacity of local soils the type of slabs and supports for them are designed keeping in view the structural and general function of the building or structure. 
There are different types of slabs as I had already explained in a comprehensive article which you can read out here.



But in this post I would be dealing with flat slabs and will also discuss in detail about their advantages and disadvantages so that while deciding the type of slab you would know what could be the benefits or drawbacks as a consequence of using flat slab system.


Flat plates are probably the most commonly used slab system today for multistory reinforced concrete hotels, motels, apartment houses, hospitals, and dormitories. A dormitory?? Ahh what it is? Actually this means a residential hall for a school or an institute that might be used for resident students.



Flat Slab <=> Flat Plate Slab
Flat Slab <=> Flat Plate Slab



So first let us discuss about the bookish definition as “What actually is a flat slab” – but hang on before defining let me make it clear to you that some individuals find difficulty in differentiating the flat slab and flat plate slab. 

Flat Slab <=> Flat Plate Slab

Fat slab is a highly multipurpose reinforced structural slab system which is built monolithic ally with the supporting column reinforced in one or more direction without any provision of beam. The column slab joint grids, in flat slab, are toughened by providing increased local depth in terms of column capital or drop panel. 

Reinforcement and Form work of Drop Panel is Fixed
Reinforcement and Form work of Drop Panel is Fixed

Now the main difference between flat slab and flat plate slab is; 

In flat plate slab the thickness of slab is uniform and does not have column capital or drop panel; but for flat slab the slab column joints are reinforced by providing column capitals and drop panels to satisfy heavy loads and long spans.  

Due to heavy loads and long spans it is necessary to increase column sizes or slab thickness or to use shear heads. Shear-heads consist of steel I or channel shapes placed in the slab over the columns.


Advantages of Flat Slab System


You might be wondering that why the flat slab system are extensively and commonly used; answer is simple the - advantages and benefits - not only after construction but ease and simplicity during construction and design makes it like that common. 

Advantages of Flat Slab System
Advantages of Flat Slab System


1.
Economical 

They are particularly economical for warehouses, parking and industrial buildings, and similar structures - where exposed drop panels or capitals are acceptable.

2. Less Concrete & Less Reinforcement

As in flat slabs the column capital and drop panels are used; the column – slab joint not necessarily needs shear reinforcement. 

Flat slabs will require less concrete and reinforcing than would be required for flat plates with the same loads and spans.

3. Lesser Depth of Slab System

Regarding the depth of the slab there is a little contradiction; there are some designers that say the flat slab needs more depth than flat plate slab or beam supported slab. Firstly, the depth depends on the loading conditions and the functional requirement of the building. If the building needs enough space with long spans the depth might be more but when it is compared with flat plate slab it is actually lesser. 

4. Flexibility in Layout


When the beams are present; the allocation of partition walls and channeling / ducting of services are predetermined and rigid with no interior layout flexibility for the owner. But due to absence of beams in flat slabs room layout as well as channeling of ducting becomes flexible.  Such conditions are best suited for clients that doesn’t have a fixed purpose of the building; thus the partition walls can be set anywhere as desired. Moreover the absence of beams makes the circulation of air and light easy. 

5. Lesser Storey Height 


Usually in beam supported slabs; false-ceiling is used to house the ducting service and to made-up smooth roofing finish for the occupants. This not only saves the cost of roof cladding but also provide comparatively more effective and functional height of the building.  
Thus we can say that more floor-to-floor height is needed in case of beam supported slab which is not the case with the flat slab. Reducing the height, thickness and absence of beams reduces the foundation load ultimately making flat slab as an economical solution for roofing system.  

6. Fast and Easy Construction


The absence of beams make reinforcement fixing a simple and easy process and in some areas prefabricated steel reinforcement mesh available in various sizes can also be used saving labor cost and saving considerable time.  The ease in fixing of formwork also helps in reducing the cost and time. 

Parking Plaza Slab Repair by Providing column Capital and Drop Panel
Parking Plaza Slab Repair by Providing column Capital and Drop Panel

Disadvantages of Flat Slab System


  • Although there are multi-dimensional advantages of flat slab system but there are certain areas in which one must be watchful and cautious.  
  • Usually during design the middle strip or middle of the slab, critical deflection exists while designing the layout of the structure one must be sure about the anticipated deflection to be as accurate as possible. 
  • Generally flat slab system is not suitable for supporting brittle (masonry) partitions which make them vulnerable in case of seismic activity. 
  • Drop panels sometimes interfere with larger mechanical ducting so this may also to be considered. 
  • Vertical penetrations need to be avoided in areas around columns.

If in 2018 you are not familiar with this highly durable and beneficial construction material than you must read each an every word of this article about Polymer Concrete. Because I'll be going through all the aspects of Polymer Concrete including its definition, how it is produced / made, how it is used, what are its benefits and what are its applications in the industry.  

What is Polymer Concrete?
What is Polymer Concrete? 




So Hang on guys !!!

Do you know what makes up a DNA of your body? Or what actually makes up the plastic bottle in which you drink beverages or what actually makes up the wood used in the chair you are sitting on? Give up? 

They are all Polymers  !!!

Poly = many <> mers = Molecules : so;

If you fully understand the meaning of polymer you’ll be able to define what this polymer concrete really is? 

If you have recently heard the word “polymer Concrete” in 2018 than I am very sad to say you are very late; fellow :D. 

Polymer concrete was actually patented in late 1950s (almost 68 years back from now) and was in a very short time it gains enough popularity in shape of repair agents, precast components and overlay materials.  

So back to what is polymer? 

Polymer is actually a macro-molecule or a large molecule that is composed of many repeated sub-units or smaller molecules called monomers. These polymers are both natural and synthetic having variety of properties that are solely dependent on the properties of the units that forms or creates them.  The smaller units repeat themselves in unique patterns to form sometimes three dimensional networks. 


So now you know what the polymer is so what about mixing them in concrete? 

Why? – Because conventional concrete is too casual to suite our needs and demands. 

Polymer concrete is defined as:- 

“Composite Concrete mixture with polymers to supplement or substitute completely cement as a binder – is termed as Polymer Concrete” 

“Composite Concrete mixture with polymers to supplement or substitute completely cement as a binder – is termed as Polymer Concrete”
“Composite Concrete mixture with polymers to supplement or substitute completely cement as a binder – is termed as Polymer Concrete” 


Now you know what the polymer is but for knowing how polymer is formed lets discuss about chemicals called “Resins”. 

Resins are semi-solid or highly viscous liquids that are capable of hardening permanently upon reaction with water or other suitable compounds.  Resins can be considered as parent for a polymer because polymers are formed after polymerization or curing of resins.  These polymers are added in concrete as epoxy binder that cures and harden concrete into place. 

Like traditional concrete Polymer concrete has the same basic ingredients including sand, aggregate and water.  The properties and benefits of polymer concrete in terms of rapid curing, excellent bond to cement concrete and steel reinforcement, durability and high strength it is widely used as repair material.

It is evident that properties of polymer concrete will mainly depend on the type of polymer resin used therein; but for a given polymer material the properties may also be dependent on :- 

  1. Content of the Binder added
  2. Aggregate Size distribution used
  3. Nature and content of the micro-filler 
  4. Curing conditions


Polymer Resins Commonly used in Polymer Concrete


Most common polymer resins used throughout the world for polymer concrete are as follows :- 

  1. Unsaturated Polyester Resin
  2. Methyl Methacrylate
  3. Epoxy Resins
  4. Furan Resins
  5. Polyurethane resins
  6. Urea Formaldehyde resins


Aggregates & Fillers in Polymer Concrete


Aggregates


  • 75–80% volume in polymer concrete is occupied by the aggregates and fillers
  • aggregates are inert material discrete all over the polymer matrix
  • Two types of aggregates are used like traditional concrete
  • Coarse aggregate = size more than 5 mm 
  • Fine aggregate = size less than 5 mm
  • As far as the grading of aggregate is concerned it is still not have any standard and is varies almost in all systems. 

Use of Micro-fillers

Micro fillers are furthermore added occasionally to the polymer concrete structure to fill the micro-voids. 

Use of reinforcing system

For improving the mechanical properties and strength of the polymer concrete; different types of fibers have been reported to be used like steel, nylon fiber, glass and polypropylene. This improves the mechanical properties including toughness, compressive strength, flexural strength, and fatigue strength.

Benefits of Polymer Concrete


From the start I have repeated many times that use of polymer concrete will add in many advantages and benefits relevant to sustainability and durability of the structure under consideration. The Polymer concrete has far better mechanical properties and durability than the ordinary Portland cement concrete. It would be in the significance of polymer concrete business / researchers if the material is categorized and promoted as a polymer composite. In addition to mechanical properties there is a long list of benefits that have been reported in the literature. Some of them are as follows :- 


  • rapid curing
  • high compressive strength
  • high specific stiffness and strength
  • resistance to chemicals and corrosion
  • ability to form complex shapes
  • excellent vibration damping properties
  • epoxies create a very strong material that shrinks very little as it cures
  • Furan resins can withstand high temperatures
  • Poly-urea resins can replace phenolics or formaldehydes


Applications and Uses of Concrete



  • Polymer concrete is used for many kinds of specialized construction projects. The material is used in electrical or industrial construction where the concrete needs to last a long time and be resistant to many types of corrosion.
  • electrical insulation systems
  • machine tool applications as replacement of cast iron for machine tool

Cost Impact of Polymer Concrete


Polymer concrete is relatively more expensive than conventional concrete which depends on the quantity of the constituents to be used as per mix design. Moreover some researchers have been reported to use indigenous local materials to be used in the matrix of concrete for better properties.  

Polymer concrete has initially been developed as an alternative material in the domain of civil engineering but over a period of time, owing to its superior properties, has found favour as a replacement material in machine building applications.

Fineness of cement is a characteristic property of cement that signifies the particle size of cement and its specific surface area. Greater fineness of cement means the particles are finer and had more surface area. In case of very coarse cement, under some conditions it can cause a serious bleeding problem on some construction projects.

There are already many research articles in journals and research papers that have discussed the effect of fineness of cement on concrete and here I have summarized those research papers to give you an overview of the variations and effects the fineness of cement cause on the properties of concrete.

Effect of Fineness of Cement on Concrete Properties

Fineness of Cement has generally following effects on properties of concrete :- 

  • Increased Rate of Hydration
  • Reduction in Bleeding
  • Increased Modulus of Elasticity
  • Increased drying shrinkage
  • Decreased effect of Freezing and Thawing
  • Decreased detrimental effects
  • Water Requirement




Increased Rate of Hydration 

The rate of hydration depends directly on the fineness of the cement as finer cements offer greater surface area for hydration to take place, and for rapid development of strength, high fineness is necessary. But higher rate of hydration means higher rate of early heat evolution.

Reduction in Bleeding


Increasing the fineness of cement reduces the amount of bleeding in concrete by increasing the water requirement of concrete.
Increased Workability

The workability of non-air-entrained concrete is increased by increasing the cement fineness. The workability of non air-entrained concrete is increased by increasing the cement fineness. In air-entrained concrete the effect of fineness of cement on workability is very much less pronounced.

Increased Modulus of Elasticity


The 28-day compressive strength & modulus of elasticity of concrete, with or without entrained air, increases with an increase in cement fineness. The difference in compressive strength due to difference in fineness of cement is considerably less at 1 year's age.

Increased Drying Shrinkage


The fineness of cement influences the drying shrinkage of concrete. When the water content is increased because of fineness, the drying shrinkage is increased. However, if excessive bleeding due to coarseness of the cement takes place, a reduction in the drying shrinkage occurs.

Decreased Freezing and Thawing


The resistance of air-entrained concrete to deterioration caused by freezing and thawing decreases with an increase in cement fineness. The same trend is noted with non air-entrained concrete, but to a lesser degree.

Decreased Detrimental effects


Both air-entrained and non air-entrained concrete containing 100 percent reactive aggregate are detrimentally affected by increased expansion at all ages by increases in the fineness of a high-alkali cement.

Water Requirement

Increasing the fineness of cement from 2700 to about 4000 cm2/g reduces the water requirement of concrete. Increasing the fineness of cement beyond an optimum limit increases the water requirement of concrete.




AASHTO stands for American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Developed in 1992 a comprehensive soil classification system that helps field engineers in estimating the general properties and characteristics of the soil encountered during the foundation preparation and other relevant construction works.  After the first publication the classification system has undergone several revisions. 


Download AASHTO Soil Classification Excel Spread Sheet [XLSX]
Download AASHTO Soil Classification Excel Spread Sheet [XLSX] 

In the construction of pavements and highway including airways and runways the soil classification is very important so as to determine the quality of the sub-grade material. 

I have already written an article on how we use AASHTO to classify any type of soil with a step by step approach. You can follow the link below. 



But today I am going to share with you a ready to use excel spreadsheet or workbook in which you can only input the pre-requisites and a comprehensive report stating all the properties of the soil under observation would be produced to you which you can print and share for your project. 

Features of the Product

  • Automatic Classification of Soil according to your inputs
  • Comprehensive Calculation Showing 
    • Soil Main Category
    • Group
    • Group Index Value
    • Significant Constituent Material
    • Subgrade Rating
  • Comprehensive Report Showing 
    • Properties of Constitents
    • Group Index and Group name
  • Notes and Graphs are also attached for ready reference and cross checks



  • Name of File : AASHTO Soil Classification - Adnan Aslam (1).xlsx
  • Type of File :XLSX
  • Size :234 KB
  • Cost of File : $5.00 USD 
  • Author : Mr. Asad Warriach (Gujrat Pakistan) 
  • Shared by : Mr. Asad Warriach (Gujrat Pakistan) 
  • Shared Date : 4-Jan-2018

Download AASHTO Soil Classification Excel Spread Sheet [XLSX]
Download AASHTO Soil Classification Excel Spread Sheet [XLSX]  
Report
Report



PDF Generated Report
PDF Generated Report 


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Saad Iqbal

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Iamcivilengineer

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