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Building Information Modeling (BIM) generally offers the wider construction industry a wide number of productivity benefits including increased coordination, analysis, quantification, safety, sustainability and accuracy.

How 4D BIM Modeling Has a Highly Positive Effect on Construction Projects?
How 4D BIM Modeling Has a Highly Positive Effect on Construction Projects?

In 1910 Henry Laurence Gantt, an American mechanical engineer created, what is now known as the Gantt chart, to monitor construction progress over time. It was a popular technique for project scheduling but lacked the ability for users to visualize the steps and permutations of a construction timeline.

With ever-increasing amount of global infrastructure, residential and commercial development projects, coupled with the growing complexity of construction projects and the increasing shortage of resources there is an expanding need for more sophisticated and sustainable tools and processes for construction management.

4D Building Information Modeling (4D BIM) is one such process. 4D BIM refers to the intelligent linking of a 3D digital model with time or schedule related information. It provides precise and useful construction project information for teams. It’s gaining momentum in the industry by providing both tangible and intangible benefits for it which are set out here.

The tangible benefits of 4D BIM modeling 

The tangible benefits of 4D BIM modelling giving enhanced productivity are :

Risk mitigation due to improved team coordination and communication
Conflict detection
improved delivery time and cost savings
improved quality

The key benefit of 4D BIM Modeling is its contribution to project scheduling, facilitating a smoother process of it.

The intangible benefit of 4D BIM modelling

An intangible benefit is the use of 4D digital models for visualization and communication of project parameters, such as the project schedule, visually to construction clients and other stakeholders, including to the less technically minded.

4D Visualization 

4D BIM modelling visualization incorporates start and finish date data for the supply and installation of construction components and reveals the importance of them in relation to the overall project. It has removed the challenge associated with traditional scheduling of construction sequences of misunderstanding brought about by the lack of visualization.

Through 4D BIM visualization, it has become easy to view schedule a variety of information. This includes construction progress information which can be shown through project viewing, review and simulation tools.

4D BIM visualization also assists in resolving any conflicts between sub-contractors or areas of site congestion which could disrupt workflow prior to construction. It can also include access routes and temporary equipment, be used to plan material deliveries, coordinate material handling equipment and ensure their availability.

Objects in a digital model are linked to a CPM schedule in order to do this. This helps stakeholders understand

firstly, the nature of the construction process
secondly, the project at any construction stage
thirdly, the appearance of a completed construction project

Visualization of the construction process

Effective visualization of the construction process can therefore be provided for view activities in relation to their cost on a daily or weekly basis as needed.

Visualization of the project at any construction stage 

By adding schedule dates to model components, a project team can improve the overall schedule and communicate this to all team members as needed at any point during a project. Over time, a schedule can be linked to a digital model to evaluate construction options.

Visualization of a completed construction project 

Visualization of a completed construction project can be useful at any stage but particularly prior to construction to mitigate risk, whether from a health and safety perspective or from a time or cost perspective.

Following the success of BIM in the design arena, contractors are now turning to BIM applications for their own uses, this includes the use of 4D BIM. Many have started using 4D BIM modeling to improve project project planning throughout a project lifecycle. It is anticipated that owner-operators will follow suit

Global BIM services provider IndiaCADworks made this investigation on how 4D BIM modeling has a highly positive effect on construction projects.

Engineering drawing is the universal graphic language of engineers and technicians. With this language the thoughts, ideas and designs regarding objects can be represented through different lines on a piece of paper. These Hand Written Notes of Engineering Drawings is a valuable source for our users who want to start designing building drawings.

It teaches how to make plans, sections, elevations and details in the construction engineering drawings.

  • Introduction
  • Concept of Orthographic Sketches 
  • Building Drawing

Engineering Drawing Hand Notes Free to Download PDF
Engineering Drawing Hand Notes Free to Download PDF  

Engineering Drawing Hand Notes Free to Download PDF

Engineering Drawing Hand Notes Free to Download PDF

How To Download

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Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute and Research Center (PKLI&RC) need services of Civil Engineers for Lahore Pakistan.

Pakistan Kidney and Liver institute and Research center is a center of excellence in healthcare which will provide state-of-the-art clinical services initially in Nephrology ,Urology ,Heptology, Hepatobiliary Surgery. Kidney Transplant and Liver Transplant and in other specialized medical field in future.
Civil Engineering Jobs in Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute and Research Center (PKLI & RC) Lahore
Civil Engineering Jobs in Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute and Research Center (PKLI & RC) Lahore

Name of Post : Associate Manager – Civil 

Bachelor degree in Civil Engineer recognized by PEC. At least 5 years of relevant experience.

Name of Post: Engineer (Engineering Services) 

Bachelor degree in Civil Engineer recognized by PEC. At least 5 years of relevant experience.

How to Apply for This Job

Apply online, please visit :

Detailed resume along with recent photograph
Applicants are encouraged to apply online.

Deadline for application is September 12, 2017

General Manager Human Resource (Operations)
Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute and Research Center (PKLI & RC)
30-E1, near Gaddafi Stadium, Gulber III, Lahore, Pakistan
Phone: 042-38107554

Project Engineer (Civil) is required in Finance Division, Government of Pakistan. One Public Sector Development Program (PSDP) funded project “Modernization and upgradation of Pakistan Ment –Phase II) requires services of a Project Engineer (Civil).

Project Engineer Civil Jobs in Finance Division, Government of Pakistan
Project Engineer Civil Jobs in Finance Division, Government of Pakistan (Click to enlarge image) 

  1. Name of Post: Project Engineer Civil
  2. No. of Posts: 01
  3. Salary Package: 90,000
  4. Qualification: BSc Engineering (Civil) from a recognized institution and registered with PEC. 
  5. Minimum 5 years post qualification experience 
  6. Max age limit: 35 years. 

Selection is purely on merit for contract upto 30-6-2018
Application form can be downloaded from
Only short listed candidates will be called for interview.
Project Director / Deputy Secretary
Room No. 312 Finance Division, Q Block Park Secretariat, Islamabad.

National Engineering Services Pakistan (Pvt.) Limited (NESPAK), a leading International Engineering Consultancy Company requires the services of the following categories on contract basis:

  1. BIM Engineers / Specialists
  2. Quantity Engineers
  3. Quantity Surveyors
  4. Junior Engineer C&M Division
  5. Geologist
  6. Junior Ecologist
  7. Junior Engineer GT&GE Division


B.Sc/B.E in Civil/Mechanical/ B.Arch or other relevant engineering degree with deep understanding of Building Information Modeling (BIM) as concept and process having atleast 1 year experience preferably in Building Information Modeling (BIM)/ Virtual design and construction. Candidates with experience of large complex projects for modeling (architecture, structures & MEP), clash detection, model based cost estimation, model based scheduling & energy analysis will be preferred. In addition, proficiency in use of BIM related softwares such as Autodesk Revit architecture, structures, MEP, Bentley AECOSIM and autodesk navisworks, etc will be an added advantage.



B.Sc. Civil Engineering having atleast 5 years experience preferably of quantity surveying/estimation. Candidates having experience in preparation of bidding documents for mega highway projects with consulting organizations shall be preferred.


Three years diploma of Associate Engineer (Civil) having atleast 10 years experience preferably in highways & bridges. Candidates having experience in preparation of bidding documents for mega highway projects with consulting organizations shall be preferred.



B.Sc. Civil Engineering with minimum CGPA of 3.0 having upto 1 year experience preferably in Project Management & building projects.



M.Sc Applied Geology preferably Ph.D in Geo-mechanics /Rock Mechanics from European or North American University having 1 to 4 years experience in the state-of-the-art geo-mechanics technology. The candidates must able to perform 2D and 3D numerical modeling, providing rock mechanics design models and interpreting the results. In addition, candidates having experience to perform geological mapping, geological appraisal and design inputs for various projects will be given preference. Maximum age limit to apply for the position is 35 years.


Master’s Degree in Ecology/Forestry having 1 to 4 years experience preferably in the field of forestry/ecology of developmental projects. Proficiency in use of relevant computer software will be given preference.


B.Sc. Engineering (Civil) with minimum CGPA of 3.0 having 1 to 4 years experience preferably in design and construction supervision of Dams, Barrages, Hydropower Plants and infrastructure in the field of geotechnical / structural works.

Suitably qualified candidates from HEC recognized universities / institutes may apply ONLINE. Applications other than online shall not be accepted. Shortlisted Engineers / Professionals having 1 year or less experience will have to go through NTS examination. The last date of submission is September 08, 2017 . Only shortlisted candidates shall be called for interview. No TA/DA shall be admissible. 

Date of Publication: 27-08-2017

A first in India, the two parallel 520-meter under the river tunnels will connect Salt Lake Sector V in Kolkata to the Howrah Maidan across the river, being elemental in Rs. 8,900 crore East West Metro Project by the end of July 2017. The work using a huge Tunnel boring Machine (TBM) has already begun on the bed of the Houghly River. The tunnels are being dug at a depth of 30 meters below the Earth’s Surface and 13 meters below the river bed. Out of the 16.6 Km East West Metro route, the tunnels will pertain to a 10.8 km underground stretch, along with an elevated corridor that will stretch to 5.8 km. 

India's First Ever Underwater Metro Train Tunnel beneath River Houghly
India's First Ever Underwater Metro Train Tunnel beneath River Houghly

Satish Chandra, managing Director of the Kolkata Metro Railway Corporation Limited (KMRCL) said as per their optimistic estimate by the end of May or the first week of June this year the first under-river tunnel of India will be complete. One tunnel-boring machine is already under the water and the second machine will also start work by the end of May. Both the tunnels will be complete by July. 

The underwater tunnel is a crucial link for the railways’ 16.6-km long East-West Metro project in Kolkata.

Commuters between Howrah and Mahakaran metro stations will be under the river for only about a minute when the metro train will pass through the tunnel at a speed of 80 km per hour. Of the 16.6-km route of the East-West Metro project, the tunneling covers 10.6 km, of which 520 metre is under the river.

Under-construction Tunnel Actual Site Picture
Under-construction Tunnel Actual Site Picture

The tunneling work started in April last year and likely to be completed in the river section shortly, a senior railway ministry official said.

KMRC developed the East West Metro in collaboration with an Indo-Russian joint venture known as Afcons Transtonnelstroy.

Nearly 10.8km of the total rail line will be underground, including the 502m underwater tunnel.

The East West Metro development was originally scheduled to complete by 2012 but faced several delays, primarily due to land allotment, route alignment and issues related to slum relocation.

KMRC will act as the operator for Line 2, which also known as the East-West Corridor.

Funding for the project has been provided by the state government (30%), the Union Urban Development Ministry (25%), and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (45%).

Sources :- 
Times of India & many others.. 

A very comprehensive and elaborative structural design guide has been prepared by a professor of Tikrit University Dr. Muyasser M. Jomma’h. The guide followed the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Code and examples are given with detailed procedures in simple English well written for persons who want to start a job as structural design engineers.

Structural Design Hand Notes by Dr. Muyasser M. Jomma’h of Tikrit University PDF Download
Structural Design Hand Notes by Dr. Muyasser M. Jomma’h of Tikrit University PDF Download

Contents of the Book

  1. Simply Supported & Continuous beams
  2. Two-Way Edge Supported Slabs
  3. Two-way column – supported slabs (Flat Slabs)
  4. One-Way & Two-Way ribbed slabs (For Large Spans) 
  5. Circular Slabs (Edge Supported)
  6. Openings in Slabs
  7. Stair Cases
  8. Corbels or Bracket beams
  9. Structural Frames in Concrete (Sleabs, beams & Columns)
  10. Prestressed Concrete beams

Structural Design of Concrete Structures is a very tricky and a very systematic procedure that requires knowledge of codes and standards. So it is always recommended to study and update your knowledge of ACI Code, ASTM Codes, AASHTO Codes etc.

A structure is an assembly of members each of which is subjected to bending or to direct force (either tensile or compressive) or to a combination of bending and direct force. These primary influences may be accompanied by shearing forces and sometimes by torsion. Effects due to changes in temperature and to shrinkage and creep of the concrete, and the possibility of damage resulting from overloading, local damage, abrasion, vibration, frost, chemical attack and similar causes may also have to be considered. Design includes the calculation of, or other means of assessing and providing resistance against, the moments, forces and other effects on the members.

An efficiently designed structure is one in which the members are arranged in such a way that the weight, loads and forces are transmitted to the foundations by the cheapest means consistent with the intended use of the structure and the nature of the site. Efficient design means more than providing suitable sizes for the concrete members and the provision of the calculated amount of reinforcement in an economical manner, It implies that the bars can be easily placed, that reinforcement is provided to resist the secondary forces inherent in monolithic construction, and that resistance is provided against all likely causes of damage to the structure. Experience and good judgement may do as much towards the production of safe and economical structures as calculation.

Complex mathematics should not be allowed to confuse the sense of good engineering. Where possible, the same degree of accuracy should be maintained through-out the calculations; it is illogical to consider, say, the effective depth of a member to two decimal places if the load is overestimated by 25%. On the other hand, in estimating loads, costs and other numerical quantities, the more items that are included at their exact value the smaller is the overall percentage of error due to the inclusion of some items the exact magnitude of which is unknown.

Preview of the Book

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