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The brick masonry industry is plagued with a stubborn and persistent confusing delinquent trouble frequently seen as white powdery scum on a lot of buildings. This white powdery substance is termed as efflorescence which is, although, not well understood but still the masonry industry is still able to define it, knows where it comes from and also methods to reduce and prevent this badly-behaved nature in brick masonry have been device and practiced these days.  

Sure Ways to Prevent and Cure Efflorescence

According to dictionaries the efflorescence is defined as:- 

A change on the surface to a powdery substance upon exposure to air, as a crystalline substance through loss of water.
To become encrusted or covered with crystals of salt or the like through evaporation or chemical change.
Actually efflorescence is a deposit of water-soluble salts that are left on the surface of masonry as a crystalline powder sometimes white or brown or green or yellow after the water evaporates from the exterior surfaces upon exposure. You might have not seen any color other than white but still it exists depending on the type of salts etc. 

This is a prominent defect in brick masonry. In moist climate, in damp places, like basements or under leaky gutter, masonry often gets disfigured. Deposit originates from the mortar and frequently spreads over a part or entire face of the wall. 

Absorbed water dissolves the salts of sodium, potassium and evaporating, forms a crystalline deposit on the surface. In addition to unsightly appearance, the crystallization of salts in the pores of the bricks or mortar may cause disruptive expansion resulting in disintegration due to cracking. 

The problem of efflorescence is not new; its existence finds its way back in the prehistoric primitive times as the brick masonry was ever started and great piece of time, money and efforts have been made and spent trying to solve the difficulties generated by this persevering problem.  

The timing of when the efflorescence appears is very critical, it open appears just after the completion of the structure and is thus named as “new building bloom”.  And at this time the contractor, builder or architect are mostly concerned with the appearance of the new structure. The appearance of efflorescence is triggered by variation of temperature and is obvious during the winter, but may also be observed throughout the year following heavy rains and sudden drops in temperature.  In summer, even after prolonged periods of rain, moisture evaporates so quickly that only small amounts of salt are transported to the surface. However, during winter, slower rates of evaporation lead to migration of salts to the surface. 

This article will explain in detail about the sources of the efflorescence, how it works, about the attempts that are to be made in order to reduce its destructive effects and if it does appear the ways to remove it.

Sources and Causes of Efflorescence  

In most general cases, the efflorescence is caused when the water gets mixed with masonry material and thus moving the salts to the surface and usually the free salts were created. In other cases when the free salts are readily available the free water dilutes it into a solution which is transported through brick masonry depositing it on the surface referred as efflorescence. 

During detailed analysis of the efflorescence it was found that sometimes the salts which are deposited inside the brick masonry form a crystal depositing within the matrix of masonry called crytoflorescenc as it is not visible. 

Conditions for Efflorescence 

The subject of efflorescence is not that simple, it is a confusing mechanism and the real cause is hard to find sometimes. However, it is well known that there are three conditions that must be met in order for the efflorescence to appear. 

  • First: There must be water-soluble salts present somewhere in the wall
  • Second: There must be sufficient moisture in the wall to render the salts into a solution
  • Third: there must be a path for the soluble salts to migrate through to the surface where the moisture can evaporate, thus depositing the salts which can crystallize and cause efflorescence. 

These three conditions must be simultaneously existed in any structure for the appearance of the efflorescence which means if any one of the cases does not exists than no efflorescence will appear. 
Although the efflorescence is a complex problem, the prevention is not that difficult with economic and feasible steps there exists ways to reduce any one of the cases/conditions required and is thus making nearly impossible for efflorescence to occur. 

Sources of Salts 

The chemical reason and nature of efflorescence is very complex as there are many chemicals in the clay bricks, concrete blocks, mortar used, cement, lime, sand, admixture and ground water that can cause sulfates, carbonates, sodium bicarbonate or silicate to cause efflorescence. The efflorescence in green color which is often termed as “Green Stain” is a result of certain vanadium and molybdenum compounds present in some ceramic brick units. Similarly in brown color the efflorescence called “Brown stain” exists which is due to manganese deposits. 

 The appearance of efflorescence is generally not dependent on the quantity present of the water soluble salts as it is reported that even very small quantities of water soluble salts causes efflorescence.  Sodium and potassium hydroxides are commonly present in Portland cements which may cause some efflorescence during the first year after construction. This is known as “Building-bloom”, a condition which typically disappears after a short while. 


If your house/building you are constructing is in areas of high annual rainfall than it must be considered in the initial stages and planning of project that the materials will be subjected to higher quantities of water both during and after construction making it more susceptible and liable for efflorescence. Similarly even if the rainfall is not more, the area is near sea where humidity is always more than in such areas the projects are also greater exposed for efflorescence potential. 

As water is always needed for the salt to dissolve, which means if more water exists the more solution will be prepared and thus more salt will dissolve causing more efflorescence. 

So after discussing sources and reasons of efflorescence we can conclude that detailed study of the following items is necessary for judging the reason and prevention measures for the efflorescence :- 

1. Moisture 
2. Construction Material
3. Temperature

Preventive and Controlling measures 

Since many factors influence the formation of efflorescence, it is difficult to predict if and when any will appear: There is no accepted standard test method for   reassuring the efflorescence potential of masonry mortar. Several experimental methods have been proposed, but none has been accepted as effectively predicting the performance of mortar materials in actual use.

After finding the reasons and causes of the efflorescence it will be easy for the one to control it prior to avoid the situation to get worsen. Even if the soluble alkali sulfates exist in a masonry wall, before the sulfates can cause efflorescence the salts must be dissolved into solution by water. If no moisture reaches the sulfates than they cannot be rendered into solution and migrate to the surface where the water will evaporate, leaving the sulfates salts on the surface to crystallize and become efflorescence. Attention must be given to preventing any soluble alkaline sulfates from being rendered into solution by water. 

This is difficult since during construction water is naturally used in the mortar and grout; therefore the amount of water in the wall should be controlled to only reduce the amount necessary for actual construction. The majority of the water is absorbed into the masonry and used to chemically react with the Portland cement and hydrated   me and is thus not free water.

To avoid Efflorescence do not use porous bricks in contact with limestone. Protect brickwork against contamination of salt-bearing materials during building operations. Bricks should be thoroughly soaked during construction. Correct design of DPC should be used.

Once the cause of efflorescence is corrected, the removal of the deposit is relatively easy, since most efflorescing salts are water soluble. In general, efflorescence can be removed by dry-brushing followed by flushing with clean water. If this is not satisfactory, walls can be washed with a five to ten percent solution of muriatic acid. It is always advisable that a small inconspicuous test area be tried first to determine whether etching or other discoloring will occur. After the acid treatment, the surface should be immediately and thoroughly flushed with clean water.

To summarize, three conditions must exist before efflorescence can occur. If these three conditions can be controlled, there should be no efflorescing of masonry walls.

1. Reduce all soluble alkali sulfates.
2. Use good details to prevent water from entering the masonry.
3. Use good construction practices to eliminate migratory paths for moisture.

Remember, it is very difficult to totally control any one of these three conditions, but it is relatively simple to reduce the effect each one has towards efflorescence. The following 5 simple ways are a sure way towards efflorescence free brick / block masonry for your project. 

1. Limit Driving Moisture Force
2. Provide for good drainage
3. Construct good mortar joints
4. Ensure proper curing
5. Limit Water Entry

The infrastructure Development Authority (IDAP) has been established by the Government of the Punjab for planning, designing, construction and maintenance of Infrastructure in Punjab in line with best international practices. They are offering highly competitive compensation packages, attractive incentives and an opportunity to become part of a world leading initiative.

Civil Engineering Jobs in Infrastructure Development Authority IDAP, Punjab, October, Novmeber, 2017
Civil Engineering Jobs in Infrastructure Development Authority IDAP, Punjab, October, Novmeber, 2017

1. Senior Manager Planning & Design
2. Manger Planning (Forensic)
3. Manager Planning
4. Assistant Manager Planning
5. Manager Quality Control
6. Manager, Cost Control
7. Manager Document Control
8. Assistant Manager Cost Control
9. Assistant Manager Estimation
10. Manager Contracts Administration
11. Project Coordinator
12. Assistant Manager Reporting
13. Manager Projects
14. Assistant Manager Projects
15. Assistant Engineer
16. Quantity Surveyor
17. AutoCAD Designer

Application form can be downloaded from website

Last date to apply: 27-Oct-2017

You can apply online or send through courier

Infrastructure Development Authority Punjab, Government of Punjab, GM HR Ground floor, 7-C-1, Gulberg III, Lahore, Pakistan. 

The Punjab Daanish Schools and Centers of Excellence Authority (PDS&CEA) is an autonomous organization established under the auspices of  Government of the Punjab, PDS&CEA seek services of highly dynamic and committed professionals on contract basis of the following posts: -

Project Coordinator Civil Engineer Jobs in Punjab Daanish Schools and Centers of Excellence Authority
Project Coordinator Civil Engineer Jobs in Punjab Daanish Schools and Centers of Excellence Authority

Name of Post: Project Coordinator

Qualification: BSc Civil Engineering or M.Sc. Project management from HEC Recognized University

Experience : 05 years experience of Project coordination and management

Age limit: upto 55 years

Pay Scale OG-1 (Equivalent to BPS-17) Gross Salary upto Rs.80,000 /- per month all inclusive.
Applicants shall attach with their applications a detailed resume, certificate copies of qualifications, experience certificates, CNIC and 2x passport size photographs.

Applications to be send by post.

Last date to apply: 03 Nov – 2017

Manager (Admin / HR & Coord)
Punjab Daanish Schools and Centers of Excellence Authority, Govt. of the Punjab, Japanese Cell Building, Research Station, near Punjab University, Canal Bank, Lahore,
042-99230633, 99231737-40

Overseas Pakistanis Foundation (OPF) Internship Program for Overseas Pakistanis Under Corporate Social Responsibility

Civil Engineering Internship Opportunity in Overseas Pakistanis Foundation (OPF) Internship Program
Civil Engineering Internship Opportunity in Overseas Pakistanis Foundation (OPF) Internship Program

Applications are invited from Fresh Graduates/Post Graduates for 01 year internship program, designed for practical training to the educated youth belonging to overseas Pakistanis families for enhancing their skills: -

Displine: Civil Engineering
No. of Seats: 30
The interns will be paid a monthly stipend depending upon the qualification on the basis of which they are applying.
Eligibility: CGPA 3.00 (in final degree)

Max. Age Limit: 30 years.

Applications are to be sent online at

Last date to apply online is 13-Nov-2017

For further information
Call 051-9048209

Demolition is the deliberate destruction of structures and materials by means of explosives, mechanical devices, fire, chemical agent, etc.

What is Demolition?

Demolition is a pre-planned and controlled bringing down or destroying of a building or structure while considering all the safety precautions.

According to Wikipedia demolition can be defined as “dismantling,razing, destroying or wracking any building or structure or any part thereof by pre-planned and controlled manner.”

Demolition Process and Methods for Buildings and Structures
Demolition Process and Methods for Buildings and Structures

Demolition of a building or structure may involve complete or partial dismantling excluding any refurbishment or alteration of existing structural components.

Another sister term of demolition is implosion; implosion is the name given to the method of demolition by means of explosives.

Huges & Salvidge is a renowned British Company specializes in number of methods for the demolition of commercial, industrial buildings including high-rise blocks or flats.  

Before carrying out the demolition at site, cautious and careful planning is a definitive pre-requisite. A pre-start meeting must takes place guiding all the works and management personals about their duties and Risk Assessments is done. A Method Statement, containing the methods of demolition techniques to be used, is then produced to control the highlighted risks.

Why demolition is needed?

The life cycle of concrete structures is usually 40 to 90 years. During this life, structures often meet with some situations like disasters, changing functions, city reconstruction, or higher residence demand due to population, all these lead to demolition or reconstruction of existing structures. The structures which have already passed their design life need to be reconstructed for safety and operational requirements.

In developed countries demolition is very essential for development of new structures for various residential and industrial purposes. Small structures can be demolished by manual methods but machinery and advanced techniques are required for demolition of bigger structures. Advanced techniques are also required for faster demolition and demolition in confined areas.  The government agencies are also needed to demolish the buildings which violate the building rules and regulation ensuring structural safety, health, fire safety and construction safety of the building.

Any kind of demolition work needs labor forces for executing the work. Today various kinds of demolition methods are available, but the method of implementation for demolition work varies with the site condition, safety and cost.

Demolition Sequence

Before the start of Demolition Project the demolition sequence is properly determined keeping in view the actual site conditions and restraints to avoid any confusion and loss later in the project.

The structure to be demolished is properly surveyed and the surroundings are properly inspected for any utilities. If there are any utility lines present like electricity, plumbing water lines, drainage connections; than these must be properly plugged or discontinued. Organize testing and checking for presence of any hazardous material e.g. Asbestors – if any, removal of Hazardous material by specialist contractor must be ensured.

If the building have any cantilever structure like verandah or canopy that must be demolished first. The presence of lift machines and watertanks at high level must be demolished in top down sequence to the main roof level.

In case of demolition for the roof slab; it must be ensured to initiate demolition from the center mid span and then work outwards towards the supporting beams of frame structure. In case of roof slab supporting on walls, the non-load bearing walls must be demolished before demolition of load bearing walls. Columns and load bearing walls shall be demolished after removal of beams on top. If site conditions permit, the first floor slab directly above the ground floor may be demolished by machine standing on ground.

Demolition Methods & Techniques

If you are looking for a career in Demolition Industry than you must get ready to face defies and challenges due to uniqueness and exceptionality of each project in terms of the surrounding environment to the structure and the materials used.

The selection for the Demolition Method or Process is dependent on some factors like:-

a.       Area where the building is located

b.      The time available for demolition

c.       The building material

d.      The purpose of the demolition

e.      The way waste debris is going to be disposed

f.        Noise and Dust Control factors (HSE)

In the past when the technological innovations have not found its footprints in the construction industry, the buildings and structures were dismantled by humans manually through hammers at the end of their lives due to structural of functional obsolesces. But mankind has learned from their mistakes, failures and disasters due to lack of awareness and knowledge on demolition.

The demolition method also varies with the time available for demolition and need of site clearance for the new structure. Before execution of demolition work, the careful study of site condition, the type of structure, structural member, demolition range, rural or urban area and frequency.

The application of method for demolition depends upon actual site condition and available space.

We can classify the demolition methods or demolition techniques into two broad categories one can be called conventional method and the other can be called non-conventional methods. According to a research from University of Salford, demolition techniques are now not only numerous but also varied in their technology, application, cost and speed.  

Manual Methods

In conventional and manual methods the demolition work is carried out manually by hands or hammers. Sledge hammer, chisel or jack hammer and drilling equipment is used. This is a very slow and rather cheap method of demolition which can be used for small house or residential building.

Demolition by Wrecking Balls

This is one of the oldest and commonly used methods of building demolition. A crane uses a wrecking ball, weight upto 6120 kg, which is either dropped onto or swing into the element to be demolished. The ball is made from forged steel, which means the steel is not cast into ta mould in a molten state. It is formed under high pressure while the steel is red hot (soft but not molten) to compress and to strengthen it.  Concrete members can be broken into small pieces, but secondary cutting of reinforcing may be necessary.

Single in-line method or vertical drop method are used in case of crane and ball method.

Demolition of a Building Structure
Demolition of a Building Structure


To demolish roofs and other horizontal spans

The wrecking balls are still used when demolition may not be possible due to local environmental issues or asbestos/lead building content.


It demands a great deal of skill from the crane operator.

The height of a building that can be demolished is limited by crane size and working room; however, buildings as high as 20 stories have been demolished.

The breakup process can cause considerable dust, vibration and noise which may be objectionable.


Selective or complete demolition of concrete structures is possible by cutting elements and then removing by crane. The cutting process may be sawing, water jetting or thermal lance. Because the surface of the cut concrete is smooth and relatively regular, these methods have particular application when the objective is partial demolition, for instance in the creation of openings in walls and slabs.

Hydro Demolition

Cutting with a water just minimizes dust and eliminates vibration and fire hazards. An abrasive and water-catching system is required to clean up during the jetting process. Hydro demolition uses a high pressure supersonic water jet, that penetrates the pores and cracks of the concrete and builds up an internal pressure. When this pressure exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete, the concrete breaks. The water jet can be used not only for cutting straight lines but also contours a useful features for cutting access manholes.

Hydro Demolition
Hydro Demolition

Thermal Lance

A thermal lance is created by packing a seamless mild steel tube with low carbon rods and passing oxygen through the tube. While this method eliminates vibration and dust problems, it creates other hazards associated with smoke and fire danger. Whether sawing, jetting or lancing is used to dismantle the structure or its components, each element must be safety lowered to the ground.

Pneumatic and Hydraulic Breaker

A common piece of equipment used for demolishing bridge decks, foundations and pavements is a hydraulically or pneumatically operated, boom-mounted breaker. The advantages of a machine mounted breaker may include a telescoping boom for easy reach and remote control operation and underwater demolition capabilities. Some of the smaller remote-controlled machines can be lifted through window openings and used inside a building to demolish floors and walls. Productivity can vary greatly depending on the size of hammer, type of concrete, amount of reinforcing and working conditions.

A jackhammer is a pneumatic or electro-mechanical tool that combines a hammer directly with a chisel. Hand-held jackhammers are typically powered by compressed air, but some use electric motors. Electric powered tools come in a variety of sizes from about 12 lbs to 65 lbs. They required an external power source, but do not require a compressor.

A hydraulic jack hammer typically much larger than portable ones, may be fitted to a mechanical excavators or backhoes and is widely used for roadworks, quarrying and general demolition or construction groundwork. They are used in mines where there is an explosion risk since they lack any high-power electrical circuitry that might cause a trigging spark. The jackhammer is connected with hydraulic hoses to a portable hydraulic power pack; either a petrol or diesel engine driving a hydraulic pump.


In the controlled demolition industry, building implosion is the strategic placing of explosive material and timing of its detonation so that a structure collapses on itself in a manner of seconds, minimizing the physical damage to its immediate surroundings. Despite its terminology, building implosion also includes the controlled demolition of other structure, such as bridges, smokestacks, towers, and tunnels. Numerous small explosives strategically placed within the structure are used to catalyze the collapse. Nitro-glycerin, dynamite, or other explosives are used to shatter reinforced concrete supports.

Blasting methods employ rapidly expanding gases confined within a series of boreholes to produce controlled fractures which provide for easy concrete removal. For the demolition of concrete structures it is usual to drill holes at a predetermined angle into the concrete to be removed. Implosion is the strategic placing of explosive material and timing of its detonation so that a structure collapses on itself in a matter of seconds, minimizing the physical damage to its immediate surroundings. The technique weakens or removes critical supports so that the building can no longer withstand the force of gravity and falls under its own weight.

Safety Precautions during Demolition


Hoarding and Protective Screens isolates the demolition site from the public, thus preventing unauthorized access and trespassing.

Safety Precautions during Demolition
Safety Precautions during Demolition


Walkways shall be provided for the use of the workmen who shall be instructed to use them an all such walkways shall be kept adequately lighted, free from debris and other materials.

Catch Platforms

In demolition of exterior wall of multistoried structure, catch platform of heavy planking shall be provided to prevent injuries to the worker working below and to the public when the external walls are more than 20 m in height.

Whats Next…to Demolition????

A new approach to demolition is the deconstruction of a building with the goal of minimizing the amount of materials going to landfills. This "green" approach is applied by removing the materials by type material and segregating them for reuse or recycling.

With proper planning this approach has resulted in landfill diversion rates that exceed 90% of an entire building and its contents in some cases. It also vastly reduces the CO2 emissions of the removing of a building in comparison to demolition.

I hope you loved the article about Demolition Techniques and Demolition Methods if you have any further questions and additions please do comment on the form below. 

Civil Engineering Jobs in The Lahore Knowledge Park Company (LKPC) is a public sector large scale organization registered with the SECP under Section 42 (not-for-profit) of the Companies ACT 2017 through the Higher Education Departement (HED). Government of the Punjab with the vision and aim to develop Lahore Knowledge Park by Establishing Campuses of internationally well-reputed universities / institutions to drive growth and knowledge ecosystem. 

Application are invited from the candidates for appointment on 

Name of Post : General Manager (Engineering) 

Education / Experience : 

A minimum of B.Sc. (Degree) in Civil engineering from a reputable HEC Recognized University local / foreign. 

Fifteen (15) years of experience in construction and infrastructure development programs and execution of large scale projects in private / public sector. 

Must be well versed in construction planning infrastructure planning, urban planning and zoning; construction/building designs, site supervision and inspections, quality assurance, BOQs and code compliances. 

Certification in Project management like PMP will be a plus. 

Age Limit : 55 Years 

No. of Posts: 1 years

Candidates can apply on a simple paper, CVs along with 2 photographs, national id card and testimonials applications completed in all respect should reach by post latest by 27th October, 2017. 
Detailed job description for each post can be downloaded online from LKPC website. 

General Manager Human ResourceLahore Knowledge Park Company 15-Abubakar Block, New Garden Town, Lahore, UAN: 92-42-99075000

This Civil Engineering Jobs in  Lahore Knowledge Park Company, Lahore, Pakistan is best opportunity for experienced Civil Engineers. All Civil Engineering jobs in Lahore Knowledge Park Company, Lahore, Pakistan is collected from different Newspapers on every Sunday and shared for our viewers so that that can apply for the job and get the employment in Lahore Knowledge Park Company, Lahore, Pakistan as Civil Engineer. These Jobs are for the Building Sector So you must have experience in Highway Projects

We have prepared a group on Facebook where you can get the alerts about Jobs in Lahore Knowledge Park Company, Lahore, PakistanIf you know any job opportunity in Private Sector both permanent Jobs and Jobs on contract basis you can contact us, you can inform us about the job.

If you are a fresh or experienced civil engineer living in Pakistan and seeking Civil Engineering Job in Highway Engineering than don’t post or share your CV here as we are not a part of the department and we are just sharing it so that you can get the opportunity to apply for this job.

AZ Engineering Associates urgently requires following staff for its Highway Projects in Punjab. Candidates meeting minimum criteria may send the latest CVs on [email protected]

Civil Engineering Jobs in AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects
Civil Engineering Jobs in AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects

  1. Name of Position : Resident Engineer

Qualification : B.Sc. Civil Engineering
Experience: 15 years in Highway Construction

  1. Assistant Resident Engineer

B.Sc. Civil Engineering / B.Tech.
Experience : 07 years in highway construction.

  1. Quantity Surveyors 

DAE Civil with 7 years experience

  1. Site Inspectors

DAE Civil with 5 years experience

  1. Lab Technicians 

DAE Civil with 5 years experience

Candidates must have completed minimum five mega highway projects. Candidate at time of interview will bring proof of at least completed five projects of mentionable size.

This Civil Engineering Jobs in  AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects is best opportunity for experienced Civil Engineers. All Civil Engineering jobs in AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects  is collected from different Newspapers on every Sunday and shared for our viewers so that that can apply for the job and get the employment in AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects as Civil Engineer. These Jobs are for the Highway Engineering Sector So you must have experience in Highway Projects

We have prepared a group on Facebook where you can get the alerts about Jobs in AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects If you know any job opportunity in Private Sector both permanent Jobs and Jobs on contract basis you can contact us, you can inform us about the job.

If you are a fresh or experienced civil engineer living in Pakistan and seeking Civil Engineering Job in Highway Engineering than don’t post or share your CV here as we are not a part of the department and we are just sharing it so that you can get the opportunity to apply for this job.


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