Latest Post
3d Modeling Softwares 3D Printed 3d Softwares abutment Abutment Designs Abvent ACE ACI ACI code Adhesion Adhesives Admixtures Advantages Agricultural Engineering Airport and Runway engineering Airports AJ&K AKB Alam Khan Ali Brothers Allama Iqbal Technical College Amazing Bridges amazing buildings America American Local Construction news Amsterdam Analysis Anchorage Length Arch Bridges Arch Dam Design Arch Dam Pdf Arch Dams Architect Architecture ARE Art Articles Articulating Concrete Block Artlantis Aspahlt Asphalt Asphalt Pavements Asphalt Plant Jobs Asphaltic Concrete Assistant Director Assistant Engineer Jobs in University Assistant Resident Engineer Jobs Associate Civil Engineering Associated Consulting Engineers At grade Intersections At Site Testing Auger AutoCAD Autocad Jobs Autocad Plans Autocad Projects Autodesk AZ Engineering Associates B.E. Jobs B.Sc. Jobs B.Tech Jobs Backfill Grouting Bahria Foundation Bahria Town Balochistan Bamboo Bamboo as Construction Material Bar Bending Schedule Barrage Basic Civil Engineering Basics Bauer BBS Beam Beam Supports Beam Types Beams Bending Moment Bentley Bidding Manager BIM BIM Engineers Bitumen BMD Bonds in Brick Masonry Book Book by William M.C. Mckenzie Book on Highway Books Books by A Books by Animesh Das Books by Douglas Thorby Books by Duncan Cartlidge Books by E. John Finnemore Books by G.C. Mays Books by Joseph B. Franzini Books by Partha Chakroborty Books by S.K. Roy Books by Saeid Eslamian Books on Concrete Books on Earthquakes Books on Fluid Mechanics Books on Materials Books on Project Management Books on Structural Design Box Girder Box Girder Birdges Brazil Construction News Brazil News Brick Masonry Bricks Bridge Bridge Construction Bridge Design Bridge Engineering Bridges Bridges in China Bridges in Netherlands Bridges in Spain Bsc Jobs BSc. Engg. Jobs BSc. Jobs Building Building Construction Building Design Building Drawing Building Information Modeling Building Information Modeling Jobs Building Jobs Building joints Buildings Buraywala Jobs CAD Canal Lining Canal Road Career Case Studies Case Study CE Videos CED Cement Cement Plant Jobs Cement Tests CFRP Chakwal Jobs China China Construction News China Pakistan Economic Corridor China Project Circular Slab Civil Contractor Jobs Civil Engineer Civil Engineer fun Civil Engineer in Education Civil Engineering Civil Engineering Articles Civil Engineering Book Civil Engineering Books Civil Engineering books by Alan Twort Civil Engineering Books by Asif Syed Civil Engineering Books by Gordon Rees Civil Engineering Books by R.M. Khatsuria Civil Engineering Books by Tyler G. Hicks Civil Engineering Calculator Civil Engineering Career Civil Engineering Clips Civil Engineering Companies Civil Engineering Conference Civil Engineering Construction Company Civil Engineering Consultants Civil Engineering Contracts Civil Engineering Degree jobs Civil Engineering Dictionary Civil Engineering Discoveries Civil Engineering Documentaries Civil Engineering Documents Civil Engineering Download Civil Engineering Downloads Civil Engineering Drawing Civil Engineering Education Civil Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering Events Civil Engineering Events Webinar Civil Engineering Experiments Civil Engineering Formulas Civil Engineering Fun Civil Engineering Handbooks Civil Engineering Hydrology Civil Engineering Innovation Civil Engineering Innovations Civil Engineering Interesting Civil Engineering Islamabad Companies Civil Engineering Job Civil Engineering Jobs Civil Engineering Jobs in Client Civil Engineering Jobs in Lahore Civil Engineering Jobs in Oil Industry Civil Engineering Jobs in Pakistan Civil Engineering jobs in Sheikhupura Civil Engineering Jokes Civil Engineering Lab Experiments Civil Engineering Laboratory Civil Engineering Magazines Civil Engineering Management Civil Engineering Manuals Civil Engineering Materials Civil Engineering MCQs Civil Engineering News Civil Engineering Practice Civil Engineering Presentations Civil Engineering Projects Civil Engineering Questions Civil Engineering Reports Civil Engineering Research civil Engineering Software Civil Engineering Softwares Civil Engineering Students Civil Engineering Subjects Civil Engineering Tenders Civil Engineering Terminologies Civil Engineering Terms Civil Engineering Text Books Civil Engineering Tips Civil Engineering Tools Civil Engineering Tutorials Civil Engineering Universities Civil Engineering Videos Civil Engneering Projects Civil Instructor Jobs Classification of Arch Dam Client Jobs Clips Cloud Technology Cloverleaf Interchange Cochin International Airport Codes Coduto Cofferdams Collapse Columns Communication & Works Department Companies Company Company Profile Competitions Concepts Concrete Concrete Books Concrete Concepts Private Limited Concrete Construction Concrete Defects Concrete Experiments Concrete Grout Concrete Mixing Concrete Pavement Concrete Quality Concrete Repair Concrete Research Concrete Research Projects Concrete Structure Concrete Structures Concrete Technology Concrete Tests Concrete Types Concreting Conditions for Soil Liquefaction Conferences Conflexpave Construction Construction Companies Construction Cost Construction Defects Construction Industry Construction Jobs Construction Machinery Construction Management Construction Management Jobs Construction Manager Construction Manager Jobs Construction Materials Construction News Construction News India Construction news Turkey Construction of Dams Construction Problems Construction Projects Construction Supervision Jobs Construction Techniques Consultant Companies Consultant Jobs Contract Documents Contract Jobs Contract Management Contract Managers Contractor Contractor Books Contractor Companies Contractor Jobs Contractors Cost Estimation Cost of Civil Engineering Works CPEC Crack Crack Width Crises Cross Rail Culverts CV CV Samples CVs Daanish Schools DAE Experience Jobs DAE Jobs Dae jobs in Government Dam Dam Engineering Dam Structure Dampness Dams Dasu Dam Data De-ice Pavements Deadliest Debate Defects in Concrete Definition Degrees Demolition Density Deputy Director Deputy Project Manager Jobs DESCON Jobs Design Engineer Design Jobs Design of Pavements Design of Structures Design Scape Development Length DI Khan Jobs Dictionary Difference Difference between Director Director Civil Directory Disaster Management Discoveries Documentaries Doors Download Downloads Draftsman Jobs Drawing Drawing and Estimation Dredging Dubai DWG EA Consulting PVT LTD EA World Earthquake Earthquake Buildings Earthquake Engineering Earthquakes Ecologist ECSP Education Education News Effects of Earthquakes Effects of Sulfate Attack Eiffel Tower Elite Engineering Company Emissions from Industries Energy Department Energy Efficient Building Engineer Required Engineering Engineering Consultancy Services Punjab Engineering Drawing Engineering Hydrology Engineering Jobs in State Bank of Pakistan Engineering Mechanics Environment Environmental Articles Environmental Engineer Environmental Engineer Jobs Environmental Engineering Environmental Engineering Books Environmental Engineering Jobs Environmental Failures Escalators Estimation Estimation Engineer ETABS Ettringite Formation Eurocode Event Events Events & Conferences Excel Sheets Executive Engineer Expansion Joint Experience Experience Jobs Experienced Jobs Experiment Experiments on concrete Expos Extension of Time Facebook Faculty Jobs Failure of Structures Failure of Water Main Faisalabad Falkirk Famous FAQ FAQs Featured Fiel Tips Field Density Tests Field Jobs Field Problems Field Tests Field Tips Field Tips Books Field work Final Year Projects Flexural Formula Flood Control Floor Floor Types Flooring Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Books Fontys University Football Footing Foreign Formwork Foundation Foundation Construction Foundation Engineer Foundation Engineering France Fresh Civil Engineering Jobs Friction Piles Frontier Works Organization Fun funny Funny Civil Engineering Funny Civil Engineering Jokes Funny Videos FWO Garages General Geologist Geology Geotech Geotechnical engineering Ghaziabad Gilgit Glass Bridges Glass Construction GM Civil Engineering Jobs GM Engineering Government Contract Jobs Government Jobs Government of Punjab Green Building Green Concrete Green Technology Grillage Foundation Groundwater Grout Grouting Guest Articles Hand Notes Handbooks Headworks Health and Safety HEC Higher Education Commission Highway Highway books Highway Construction Highway Design Highway Engineering Highway Engineering Videos Highway Jobs Highway Marking Highway Materials Highway Roads Highway Videos Highways History History of Civil Engineering HMA Hollow Core Slabs Hollow planks Home Maintenance Honeycombing Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge HongKong Hospital Projects Hospitals in Sakardu Houghly River How to HSE Hyderabad Hydraulic Design Engineer Hydraulic Engineer Hydraulics Hydraulics Books Hydro Power Sector Civil Engineering Jobs Hydrogeologist Hydrology Hydrology Books Hydrology Softwares Hydropower Jobs Hydropower Plant Jobs Hydropower Projects Iamcivilengineer Ice Hotel 365 IDAP Images Impact Study Incoming Projects India India Construction News Indian Airport Indus Water Treaty Industrial Engineering Industry News Influence Line Diagrams Infrastructure Crises Infrastructure Development Authority Punjab Innovation Inspector Building Material Inspector Jobs Institutions Instructor Jobs Interesting Interesting Bridges Interesting Buildings Interesting Engineering Interesting Facts Interesting News Interesting Projects Interesting Tower Bridges Interesting Transportation Internships Intersections Interview Interview Questions Interviews Invention Iran Buildings Irrigation Irrigation Canal Irrigation Canal Lining Irrigation Engineering Islamabad Islamabad Companies Islamabad Consultant Companies Islamabad Jobs Islamabad News Islamabad Projects IST Istanbul News Italy Jack Jacking Force Job Job Mix Formula Job Openings Jobs Jobs in Bahria Foundation jobs in cnw Jobs in Consultant Firms Jobs in Hydropower Sector Jobs in Irrigation Department Jobs in Islamabad Jobs in Kashmir Jobs in Manazel Construction Company Jobs in Saudia Arabia Jobs in SSWMB jobs in Sukkur IBA Jobs in Universities Junior Engineer Karachi Karachi Consultant Companies Karachi Jobs Karachi Projects Kashmir Kelpies KEMU Jobs Khanna Book King Edward Medical College Jobs Knowledge Park Company Lahore Kolkata KSA jobs L.F. Webseter Lab Technician Lab Tests Laboratory Laboratory Course Laboratory Experiments Laboratory Manuals Laboratory Tests Lahore Lahore Consultant Companies Lahore Jobs Lap Length LDA Lectures Lightweight Concrete Liquefaction List of Construction Companies Listing Local Local News Local Projects Locals London News Los Angeles Abrasion Test Machines Magazines Malaysia Management Management Jobs Manager Execution Manager Procurement Manazel Construction Company Marafie Foundation Marshall Marshall Flow Test Marshall Mix Design Marshall Stability Test Masjid Plans Masonry Masonry and Concrete Masonry Construction Masonry Structures Mass Transit System Material Engineer Jobs Material Engineering Material Research Material Technicians Course Matrix Analysis Matrix Analysis Books MCQs Meetups MegaStructures Methods Methods of Concrete Metro Bus Service Metro Train Project Metro Train service Microsoft Microsoft Azure Mississippi River Bridge MIT Mixing of Concrete Mosque Architectural Plans Mosque Plans Mosque Structural Details Motorways MSc Jobs Multinational Muzaffarabad Namal Education Foundation National Logistic Cell Jobs Negative Friction NESPAK Netherland Structures Netherlands New New Ideas New Khanki Bridge New Projects New Technology News Nlc NLC Jobs NLC Sowan Camp Notes NTU Singapore Nyottingham Online Calculator Online Design Tools Overlap Length Overlay of Pavements Overlays P.N. Khanna P&DD Kashmir PAF Pakistan Pakistan Airforce Jobs Pakistan Companies Pakistan Construction News Pakistan Consultant Companies Pakistan Consultant Firms Pakistan Engineering Council Pakistan Hydropower Projects Pakistan Jobs Pakistan News Pakistan Projects Palm Islands Dubai Parking Types Parts of Bridges Pavegen Pavement Pavement Design Pavement Distresses Pavement Engineering Pavements Paving Asphalt Videos PDF PDF Downloads PDS&CEA PEC PEC Course PEC Islamabad Events Pedestrian bridges Percy Shaw Peshawar Consultant Companies Pheratic Pictures Pile Pile Foundation Piles PKLI & RC Planning Planning Department Planning Engineer Planning Engineer Jobs Plant Construction Jobs Plastering Plasticizers Plinth Beam PM PMU Pocket Book Population Forcast Population Project Post Tensioning Post-Tensioning Post-tensioning Jacks Pouring PowerSurvey PPMU PPRA PPTs Pre Stressing Pre-stressed Concrete Precast Precast slabs Premier Services Presentations Prestressing Prevention of Sulphate Attack Primary & Secondary Health Care Department Primaver Tutorials Primavera Primavera Database Connection Private jobs Problems Professions Project Project Acquisition Project Claims Project Control (planning) Manager / Engineer Project Director Project Engineer Project Engineer Job Project Engineer Jobs Project Jobs Project Management Project Management Books Project Management Course Project management Jobs Project Manager Project Manager Jobs Project Managment Unit Project News Project on Solar Energy Project Pictures Project Profile Projects Properties of Concrete Public Health Engineering Punjab Punjab Government Punjab Healthcare Department Jobs Punjab Jobs Punjab Power Management Unit Punjab Thermal Power Company QA/QC QA/QC Engineer Quality Assurance Quality Control Quality of Concrete Quantity Surveying Quantity Surveyor Quantity Surveyor Jobs Question Answers Questions Quetta Quetta Jobs R. Hutchinson R.C.C Raft foundation Rahim yar Khan RAILCOP Railway Bridges Railway Engineering Railway Engineering Jobs Railways Raised Pavement Markers Rawalpindi Rawalpindi Jobs RCC RE Recycled Construction Recycled Pavement Recycled Plastic Roads Reduce Emissions Reinforced Cement Concrete Reinforced Concrete Reinforced Earth Panels reinforcement Reinforcement Bending Schedule Renewable Resources Company Renewable Resources Jobs Repairing R.C.C Slab Research Research Officer Research Projects Research Work Resident Engineer Resident Engineer Jobs Resumes Retroflectors Rigid Concrete Pavement Rigid Pavement Rigid Pavements Road and Highway Road Marking Road Reflectors Roads Roboat Roller Compacted Concrete Rsearch Russia Construction News Saaf Paani Company Samples Samples for CV Samples for Resume Sand Boils Sand Replacement test Scholarship Scholarships Scotland SDO Seismic Activity Seismic books Seismic Design Senior Engineer Jobs Septic Tank Services Master (Pvt.) Ltd. Sewerage Treatment Plant SFD Shear Force Shear Wall Short Courses Sindh Solid Waste Management Board Singapore Site Engineer Site Engineer Jobs Site Engineers Site Manager Site Selection Site Supervisor Skin Friction Skyscrappers slider slideshow Sludge Slump Small Bridges Software Problems Softwares Soil Soil Boiling Soil Cement Soil Engineering Soil Liquefaction Soil Mechanics Soil Mechanics Books Soil Mechanics Lab Manual Soil Mechanics tests Soil Salinity Soil Sciences Solar Energy Sponsor Posts Sponsored Sponsored Posts Sports Board Punjab Stairs Standards State Bank of Pakistan Steel Steel Structures Stilt Floor Stone Masonry Strain Strain Hardening Strength Strength of Materials Stress Stresses in soil Structual Analysis Structural Analysis Structural Analysis Books Structural Design Structural Dynamics Structural Engineering Structural Engineers Jobs Structural Health Monitoring Structure Structures Studs Study Sub Engineer Subramanya Sulfate Attack Sulphate Attack Sunlink Superplasticizers Suppliers Surge Shaft Surveillance Survey Surveying Surveying and Levelling Surveyor Surveyor Books Sweden Sweden Ice Hotel 365 Switzerland Taunsa & Mailsi Tehran Flyovers Tendering Tendering Explained Tenders Tendon Grouting Tendonds Tendons Terminologies Terms Test on Concrete Tests & Interview Tips Tests on Aggregates Thailand Buildings Tie Beam Tikrit University Timber Engineering Timber Structures Tips Top 10 Trainee Engineer Jobs Trainee Engineers Tram Transportation Engineering Transportation Engineering Books Truss Truss Structures Tunnel Boring Machine Tunnel Engineering Tunnels Turkey News Tutorials Type of Foundation Types Types of Admixtures Types of Beams Types of Bonds Types of Bridges Types of Concrete Types of Doors Types of Intersections Types of Piles Types of Soil Cement Types of Truss U.S. Embassy Jobs UAE Jobs UET jobs UET Lahore Jobs UET Taxila UK News Under Reamed Piles University Jobs University Lecturer Jobs University Project Jobs UPADSD 2017 Upcoming Projects Upcomming Project Upcomming Projects Updates Urban Planning and Sustainable Development Conference Urban Unit USA USA Construction News USA News Vadose Vehari City Vehari Jobs Vibration Video Training Videos Walking Excavator Wall Collapse Turkey WASA Waste Management Company Jobs Wastewater Treatment Water Engineering Water Lodging Water News Water Proofing Water Resource Expert Water Resources WaterCAD Webinar Webinars Weir Widening Wiley & Sons Wonders of World Wood Structures Workability Worked Examples Workshops World News Yellow Pages Yngve Bergqvist Zaha Hadid ZK&A ZKA ZKB ZKB Company Zoab Job

The brick masonry industry is plagued with a stubborn and persistent confusing delinquent trouble frequently seen as white powdery scum on a lot of buildings. This white powdery substance is termed as efflorescence which is, although, not well understood but still the masonry industry is still able to define it, knows where it comes from and also methods to reduce and prevent this badly-behaved nature in brick masonry have been device and practiced these days.  

Sure Ways to Prevent and Cure Efflorescence


According to dictionaries the efflorescence is defined as:- 

A change on the surface to a powdery substance upon exposure to air, as a crystalline substance through loss of water.
To become encrusted or covered with crystals of salt or the like through evaporation or chemical change.
Actually efflorescence is a deposit of water-soluble salts that are left on the surface of masonry as a crystalline powder sometimes white or brown or green or yellow after the water evaporates from the exterior surfaces upon exposure. You might have not seen any color other than white but still it exists depending on the type of salts etc. 

This is a prominent defect in brick masonry. In moist climate, in damp places, like basements or under leaky gutter, masonry often gets disfigured. Deposit originates from the mortar and frequently spreads over a part or entire face of the wall. 

Absorbed water dissolves the salts of sodium, potassium and evaporating, forms a crystalline deposit on the surface. In addition to unsightly appearance, the crystallization of salts in the pores of the bricks or mortar may cause disruptive expansion resulting in disintegration due to cracking. 

The problem of efflorescence is not new; its existence finds its way back in the prehistoric primitive times as the brick masonry was ever started and great piece of time, money and efforts have been made and spent trying to solve the difficulties generated by this persevering problem.  

The timing of when the efflorescence appears is very critical, it open appears just after the completion of the structure and is thus named as “new building bloom”.  And at this time the contractor, builder or architect are mostly concerned with the appearance of the new structure. The appearance of efflorescence is triggered by variation of temperature and is obvious during the winter, but may also be observed throughout the year following heavy rains and sudden drops in temperature.  In summer, even after prolonged periods of rain, moisture evaporates so quickly that only small amounts of salt are transported to the surface. However, during winter, slower rates of evaporation lead to migration of salts to the surface. 

This article will explain in detail about the sources of the efflorescence, how it works, about the attempts that are to be made in order to reduce its destructive effects and if it does appear the ways to remove it.

Sources and Causes of Efflorescence  

In most general cases, the efflorescence is caused when the water gets mixed with masonry material and thus moving the salts to the surface and usually the free salts were created. In other cases when the free salts are readily available the free water dilutes it into a solution which is transported through brick masonry depositing it on the surface referred as efflorescence. 

During detailed analysis of the efflorescence it was found that sometimes the salts which are deposited inside the brick masonry form a crystal depositing within the matrix of masonry called crytoflorescenc as it is not visible. 

Conditions for Efflorescence 


The subject of efflorescence is not that simple, it is a confusing mechanism and the real cause is hard to find sometimes. However, it is well known that there are three conditions that must be met in order for the efflorescence to appear. 

  • First: There must be water-soluble salts present somewhere in the wall
  • Second: There must be sufficient moisture in the wall to render the salts into a solution
  • Third: there must be a path for the soluble salts to migrate through to the surface where the moisture can evaporate, thus depositing the salts which can crystallize and cause efflorescence. 

These three conditions must be simultaneously existed in any structure for the appearance of the efflorescence which means if any one of the cases does not exists than no efflorescence will appear. 
Although the efflorescence is a complex problem, the prevention is not that difficult with economic and feasible steps there exists ways to reduce any one of the cases/conditions required and is thus making nearly impossible for efflorescence to occur. 

Sources of Salts 

The chemical reason and nature of efflorescence is very complex as there are many chemicals in the clay bricks, concrete blocks, mortar used, cement, lime, sand, admixture and ground water that can cause sulfates, carbonates, sodium bicarbonate or silicate to cause efflorescence. The efflorescence in green color which is often termed as “Green Stain” is a result of certain vanadium and molybdenum compounds present in some ceramic brick units. Similarly in brown color the efflorescence called “Brown stain” exists which is due to manganese deposits. 

 The appearance of efflorescence is generally not dependent on the quantity present of the water soluble salts as it is reported that even very small quantities of water soluble salts causes efflorescence.  Sodium and potassium hydroxides are commonly present in Portland cements which may cause some efflorescence during the first year after construction. This is known as “Building-bloom”, a condition which typically disappears after a short while. 


Moisture 

If your house/building you are constructing is in areas of high annual rainfall than it must be considered in the initial stages and planning of project that the materials will be subjected to higher quantities of water both during and after construction making it more susceptible and liable for efflorescence. Similarly even if the rainfall is not more, the area is near sea where humidity is always more than in such areas the projects are also greater exposed for efflorescence potential. 

As water is always needed for the salt to dissolve, which means if more water exists the more solution will be prepared and thus more salt will dissolve causing more efflorescence. 

So after discussing sources and reasons of efflorescence we can conclude that detailed study of the following items is necessary for judging the reason and prevention measures for the efflorescence :- 

1. Moisture 
2. Construction Material
3. Temperature

Preventive and Controlling measures 

Since many factors influence the formation of efflorescence, it is difficult to predict if and when any will appear: There is no accepted standard test method for   reassuring the efflorescence potential of masonry mortar. Several experimental methods have been proposed, but none has been accepted as effectively predicting the performance of mortar materials in actual use.

After finding the reasons and causes of the efflorescence it will be easy for the one to control it prior to avoid the situation to get worsen. Even if the soluble alkali sulfates exist in a masonry wall, before the sulfates can cause efflorescence the salts must be dissolved into solution by water. If no moisture reaches the sulfates than they cannot be rendered into solution and migrate to the surface where the water will evaporate, leaving the sulfates salts on the surface to crystallize and become efflorescence. Attention must be given to preventing any soluble alkaline sulfates from being rendered into solution by water. 

This is difficult since during construction water is naturally used in the mortar and grout; therefore the amount of water in the wall should be controlled to only reduce the amount necessary for actual construction. The majority of the water is absorbed into the masonry and used to chemically react with the Portland cement and hydrated   me and is thus not free water.

To avoid Efflorescence do not use porous bricks in contact with limestone. Protect brickwork against contamination of salt-bearing materials during building operations. Bricks should be thoroughly soaked during construction. Correct design of DPC should be used.

Once the cause of efflorescence is corrected, the removal of the deposit is relatively easy, since most efflorescing salts are water soluble. In general, efflorescence can be removed by dry-brushing followed by flushing with clean water. If this is not satisfactory, walls can be washed with a five to ten percent solution of muriatic acid. It is always advisable that a small inconspicuous test area be tried first to determine whether etching or other discoloring will occur. After the acid treatment, the surface should be immediately and thoroughly flushed with clean water.

To summarize, three conditions must exist before efflorescence can occur. If these three conditions can be controlled, there should be no efflorescing of masonry walls.

1. Reduce all soluble alkali sulfates.
2. Use good details to prevent water from entering the masonry.
3. Use good construction practices to eliminate migratory paths for moisture.

Remember, it is very difficult to totally control any one of these three conditions, but it is relatively simple to reduce the effect each one has towards efflorescence. The following 5 simple ways are a sure way towards efflorescence free brick / block masonry for your project. 

1. Limit Driving Moisture Force
2. Provide for good drainage
3. Construct good mortar joints
4. Ensure proper curing
5. Limit Water Entry

The infrastructure Development Authority (IDAP) has been established by the Government of the Punjab for planning, designing, construction and maintenance of Infrastructure in Punjab in line with best international practices. They are offering highly competitive compensation packages, attractive incentives and an opportunity to become part of a world leading initiative.

Civil Engineering Jobs in Infrastructure Development Authority IDAP, Punjab, October, Novmeber, 2017
Civil Engineering Jobs in Infrastructure Development Authority IDAP, Punjab, October, Novmeber, 2017


1. Senior Manager Planning & Design
2. Manger Planning (Forensic)
3. Manager Planning
4. Assistant Manager Planning
5. Manager Quality Control
6. Manager, Cost Control
7. Manager Document Control
8. Assistant Manager Cost Control
9. Assistant Manager Estimation
10. Manager Contracts Administration
11. Project Coordinator
12. Assistant Manager Reporting
13. Manager Projects
14. Assistant Manager Projects
15. Assistant Engineer
16. Quantity Surveyor
17. AutoCAD Designer

Application form can be downloaded from website www.idap.pk/carreers.php

Last date to apply: 27-Oct-2017

You can apply online or send through courier

Infrastructure Development Authority Punjab, Government of Punjab, GM HR Ground floor, 7-C-1, Gulberg III, Lahore, Pakistan. 

The Punjab Daanish Schools and Centers of Excellence Authority (PDS&CEA) is an autonomous organization established under the auspices of  Government of the Punjab, PDS&CEA seek services of highly dynamic and committed professionals on contract basis of the following posts: -

Project Coordinator Civil Engineer Jobs in Punjab Daanish Schools and Centers of Excellence Authority
Project Coordinator Civil Engineer Jobs in Punjab Daanish Schools and Centers of Excellence Authority


Name of Post: Project Coordinator

Qualification: BSc Civil Engineering or M.Sc. Project management from HEC Recognized University

Experience : 05 years experience of Project coordination and management

Age limit: upto 55 years

Pay Scale OG-1 (Equivalent to BPS-17) Gross Salary upto Rs.80,000 /- per month all inclusive.
Applicants shall attach with their applications a detailed resume, certificate copies of qualifications, experience certificates, CNIC and 2x passport size photographs.

Applications to be send by post.

Last date to apply: 03 Nov – 2017

Manager (Admin / HR & Coord)
Punjab Daanish Schools and Centers of Excellence Authority, Govt. of the Punjab, Japanese Cell Building, Research Station, near Punjab University, Canal Bank, Lahore,
042-99230633, 99231737-40

Overseas Pakistanis Foundation (OPF) Internship Program for Overseas Pakistanis Under Corporate Social Responsibility

Civil Engineering Internship Opportunity in Overseas Pakistanis Foundation (OPF) Internship Program
Civil Engineering Internship Opportunity in Overseas Pakistanis Foundation (OPF) Internship Program


Applications are invited from Fresh Graduates/Post Graduates for 01 year internship program, designed for practical training to the educated youth belonging to overseas Pakistanis families for enhancing their skills: -

Displine: Civil Engineering
No. of Seats: 30
The interns will be paid a monthly stipend depending upon the qualification on the basis of which they are applying.
Eligibility: CGPA 3.00 (in final degree)

Max. Age Limit: 30 years.

Applications are to be sent online at www.opf.org.pk/careers/internships/

Last date to apply online is 13-Nov-2017

For further information
Call 051-9048209
051-9048222

Demolition is the deliberate destruction of structures and materials by means of explosives, mechanical devices, fire, chemical agent, etc.

What is Demolition?

Demolition is a pre-planned and controlled bringing down or destroying of a building or structure while considering all the safety precautions.

According to Wikipedia demolition can be defined as “dismantling,razing, destroying or wracking any building or structure or any part thereof by pre-planned and controlled manner.”

Demolition Process and Methods for Buildings and Structures
Demolition Process and Methods for Buildings and Structures



Demolition of a building or structure may involve complete or partial dismantling excluding any refurbishment or alteration of existing structural components.

Another sister term of demolition is implosion; implosion is the name given to the method of demolition by means of explosives.

Huges & Salvidge is a renowned British Company specializes in number of methods for the demolition of commercial, industrial buildings including high-rise blocks or flats.  

Before carrying out the demolition at site, cautious and careful planning is a definitive pre-requisite. A pre-start meeting must takes place guiding all the works and management personals about their duties and Risk Assessments is done. A Method Statement, containing the methods of demolition techniques to be used, is then produced to control the highlighted risks.

Why demolition is needed?

The life cycle of concrete structures is usually 40 to 90 years. During this life, structures often meet with some situations like disasters, changing functions, city reconstruction, or higher residence demand due to population, all these lead to demolition or reconstruction of existing structures. The structures which have already passed their design life need to be reconstructed for safety and operational requirements.

In developed countries demolition is very essential for development of new structures for various residential and industrial purposes. Small structures can be demolished by manual methods but machinery and advanced techniques are required for demolition of bigger structures. Advanced techniques are also required for faster demolition and demolition in confined areas.  The government agencies are also needed to demolish the buildings which violate the building rules and regulation ensuring structural safety, health, fire safety and construction safety of the building.

Any kind of demolition work needs labor forces for executing the work. Today various kinds of demolition methods are available, but the method of implementation for demolition work varies with the site condition, safety and cost.



Demolition Sequence

Before the start of Demolition Project the demolition sequence is properly determined keeping in view the actual site conditions and restraints to avoid any confusion and loss later in the project.

The structure to be demolished is properly surveyed and the surroundings are properly inspected for any utilities. If there are any utility lines present like electricity, plumbing water lines, drainage connections; than these must be properly plugged or discontinued. Organize testing and checking for presence of any hazardous material e.g. Asbestors – if any, removal of Hazardous material by specialist contractor must be ensured.

If the building have any cantilever structure like verandah or canopy that must be demolished first. The presence of lift machines and watertanks at high level must be demolished in top down sequence to the main roof level.

In case of demolition for the roof slab; it must be ensured to initiate demolition from the center mid span and then work outwards towards the supporting beams of frame structure. In case of roof slab supporting on walls, the non-load bearing walls must be demolished before demolition of load bearing walls. Columns and load bearing walls shall be demolished after removal of beams on top. If site conditions permit, the first floor slab directly above the ground floor may be demolished by machine standing on ground.

Demolition Methods & Techniques



If you are looking for a career in Demolition Industry than you must get ready to face defies and challenges due to uniqueness and exceptionality of each project in terms of the surrounding environment to the structure and the materials used.



The selection for the Demolition Method or Process is dependent on some factors like:-

a.       Area where the building is located

b.      The time available for demolition

c.       The building material

d.      The purpose of the demolition

e.      The way waste debris is going to be disposed

f.        Noise and Dust Control factors (HSE)

In the past when the technological innovations have not found its footprints in the construction industry, the buildings and structures were dismantled by humans manually through hammers at the end of their lives due to structural of functional obsolesces. But mankind has learned from their mistakes, failures and disasters due to lack of awareness and knowledge on demolition.

The demolition method also varies with the time available for demolition and need of site clearance for the new structure. Before execution of demolition work, the careful study of site condition, the type of structure, structural member, demolition range, rural or urban area and frequency.

The application of method for demolition depends upon actual site condition and available space.

We can classify the demolition methods or demolition techniques into two broad categories one can be called conventional method and the other can be called non-conventional methods. According to a research from University of Salford, demolition techniques are now not only numerous but also varied in their technology, application, cost and speed.  

Manual Methods


In conventional and manual methods the demolition work is carried out manually by hands or hammers. Sledge hammer, chisel or jack hammer and drilling equipment is used. This is a very slow and rather cheap method of demolition which can be used for small house or residential building.

Demolition by Wrecking Balls


This is one of the oldest and commonly used methods of building demolition. A crane uses a wrecking ball, weight upto 6120 kg, which is either dropped onto or swing into the element to be demolished. The ball is made from forged steel, which means the steel is not cast into ta mould in a molten state. It is formed under high pressure while the steel is red hot (soft but not molten) to compress and to strengthen it.  Concrete members can be broken into small pieces, but secondary cutting of reinforcing may be necessary.

Single in-line method or vertical drop method are used in case of crane and ball method.

Demolition of a Building Structure
Demolition of a Building Structure

Advantages:


To demolish roofs and other horizontal spans

The wrecking balls are still used when demolition may not be possible due to local environmental issues or asbestos/lead building content.



Disadvantages:


It demands a great deal of skill from the crane operator.

The height of a building that can be demolished is limited by crane size and working room; however, buildings as high as 20 stories have been demolished.

The breakup process can cause considerable dust, vibration and noise which may be objectionable.

Demolition.


Selective or complete demolition of concrete structures is possible by cutting elements and then removing by crane. The cutting process may be sawing, water jetting or thermal lance. Because the surface of the cut concrete is smooth and relatively regular, these methods have particular application when the objective is partial demolition, for instance in the creation of openings in walls and slabs.

Hydro Demolition


Cutting with a water just minimizes dust and eliminates vibration and fire hazards. An abrasive and water-catching system is required to clean up during the jetting process. Hydro demolition uses a high pressure supersonic water jet, that penetrates the pores and cracks of the concrete and builds up an internal pressure. When this pressure exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete, the concrete breaks. The water jet can be used not only for cutting straight lines but also contours a useful features for cutting access manholes.

Hydro Demolition
Hydro Demolition

Thermal Lance


A thermal lance is created by packing a seamless mild steel tube with low carbon rods and passing oxygen through the tube. While this method eliminates vibration and dust problems, it creates other hazards associated with smoke and fire danger. Whether sawing, jetting or lancing is used to dismantle the structure or its components, each element must be safety lowered to the ground.

Pneumatic and Hydraulic Breaker


A common piece of equipment used for demolishing bridge decks, foundations and pavements is a hydraulically or pneumatically operated, boom-mounted breaker. The advantages of a machine mounted breaker may include a telescoping boom for easy reach and remote control operation and underwater demolition capabilities. Some of the smaller remote-controlled machines can be lifted through window openings and used inside a building to demolish floors and walls. Productivity can vary greatly depending on the size of hammer, type of concrete, amount of reinforcing and working conditions.

A jackhammer is a pneumatic or electro-mechanical tool that combines a hammer directly with a chisel. Hand-held jackhammers are typically powered by compressed air, but some use electric motors. Electric powered tools come in a variety of sizes from about 12 lbs to 65 lbs. They required an external power source, but do not require a compressor.

A hydraulic jack hammer typically much larger than portable ones, may be fitted to a mechanical excavators or backhoes and is widely used for roadworks, quarrying and general demolition or construction groundwork. They are used in mines where there is an explosion risk since they lack any high-power electrical circuitry that might cause a trigging spark. The jackhammer is connected with hydraulic hoses to a portable hydraulic power pack; either a petrol or diesel engine driving a hydraulic pump.

Explosives


In the controlled demolition industry, building implosion is the strategic placing of explosive material and timing of its detonation so that a structure collapses on itself in a manner of seconds, minimizing the physical damage to its immediate surroundings. Despite its terminology, building implosion also includes the controlled demolition of other structure, such as bridges, smokestacks, towers, and tunnels. Numerous small explosives strategically placed within the structure are used to catalyze the collapse. Nitro-glycerin, dynamite, or other explosives are used to shatter reinforced concrete supports.

Blasting methods employ rapidly expanding gases confined within a series of boreholes to produce controlled fractures which provide for easy concrete removal. For the demolition of concrete structures it is usual to drill holes at a predetermined angle into the concrete to be removed. Implosion is the strategic placing of explosive material and timing of its detonation so that a structure collapses on itself in a matter of seconds, minimizing the physical damage to its immediate surroundings. The technique weakens or removes critical supports so that the building can no longer withstand the force of gravity and falls under its own weight.

Safety Precautions during Demolition

Hoarding


Hoarding and Protective Screens isolates the demolition site from the public, thus preventing unauthorized access and trespassing.

Safety Precautions during Demolition
Safety Precautions during Demolition

Walkways


Walkways shall be provided for the use of the workmen who shall be instructed to use them an all such walkways shall be kept adequately lighted, free from debris and other materials.

Catch Platforms


In demolition of exterior wall of multistoried structure, catch platform of heavy planking shall be provided to prevent injuries to the worker working below and to the public when the external walls are more than 20 m in height.



Whats Next…to Demolition????

A new approach to demolition is the deconstruction of a building with the goal of minimizing the amount of materials going to landfills. This "green" approach is applied by removing the materials by type material and segregating them for reuse or recycling.

With proper planning this approach has resulted in landfill diversion rates that exceed 90% of an entire building and its contents in some cases. It also vastly reduces the CO2 emissions of the removing of a building in comparison to demolition.

I hope you loved the article about Demolition Techniques and Demolition Methods if you have any further questions and additions please do comment on the form below. 

Civil Engineering Jobs in The Lahore Knowledge Park Company (LKPC) is a public sector large scale organization registered with the SECP under Section 42 (not-for-profit) of the Companies ACT 2017 through the Higher Education Departement (HED). Government of the Punjab with the vision and aim to develop Lahore Knowledge Park by Establishing Campuses of internationally well-reputed universities / institutions to drive growth and knowledge ecosystem. 



Application are invited from the candidates for appointment on 

Name of Post : General Manager (Engineering) 

Education / Experience : 

A minimum of B.Sc. (Degree) in Civil engineering from a reputable HEC Recognized University local / foreign. 

Fifteen (15) years of experience in construction and infrastructure development programs and execution of large scale projects in private / public sector. 

Must be well versed in construction planning infrastructure planning, urban planning and zoning; construction/building designs, site supervision and inspections, quality assurance, BOQs and code compliances. 

Certification in Project management like PMP will be a plus. 

Age Limit : 55 Years 

No. of Posts: 1 years

Candidates can apply on a simple paper, CVs along with 2 photographs, national id card and testimonials applications completed in all respect should reach by post latest by 27th October, 2017. 
Detailed job description for each post can be downloaded online from LKPC website. 

General Manager Human ResourceLahore Knowledge Park Company 15-Abubakar Block, New Garden Town, Lahore, UAN: 92-42-99075000

This Civil Engineering Jobs in  Lahore Knowledge Park Company, Lahore, Pakistan is best opportunity for experienced Civil Engineers. All Civil Engineering jobs in Lahore Knowledge Park Company, Lahore, Pakistan is collected from different Newspapers on every Sunday and shared for our viewers so that that can apply for the job and get the employment in Lahore Knowledge Park Company, Lahore, Pakistan as Civil Engineer. These Jobs are for the Building Sector So you must have experience in Highway Projects

We have prepared a group on Facebook where you can get the alerts about Jobs in Lahore Knowledge Park Company, Lahore, PakistanIf you know any job opportunity in Private Sector both permanent Jobs and Jobs on contract basis you can contact us, you can inform us about the job.





If you are a fresh or experienced civil engineer living in Pakistan and seeking Civil Engineering Job in Highway Engineering than don’t post or share your CV here as we are not a part of the department and we are just sharing it so that you can get the opportunity to apply for this job.

AZ Engineering Associates urgently requires following staff for its Highway Projects in Punjab. Candidates meeting minimum criteria may send the latest CVs on [email protected]

Civil Engineering Jobs in AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects
Civil Engineering Jobs in AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects



  1. Name of Position : Resident Engineer


Qualification : B.Sc. Civil Engineering
Experience: 15 years in Highway Construction

  1. Assistant Resident Engineer

B.Sc. Civil Engineering / B.Tech.
Experience : 07 years in highway construction.

  1. Quantity Surveyors 


DAE Civil with 7 years experience

  1. Site Inspectors

DAE Civil with 5 years experience

  1. Lab Technicians 

DAE Civil with 5 years experience

Candidates must have completed minimum five mega highway projects. Candidate at time of interview will bring proof of at least completed five projects of mentionable size.


This Civil Engineering Jobs in  AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects is best opportunity for experienced Civil Engineers. All Civil Engineering jobs in AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects  is collected from different Newspapers on every Sunday and shared for our viewers so that that can apply for the job and get the employment in AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects as Civil Engineer. These Jobs are for the Highway Engineering Sector So you must have experience in Highway Projects

We have prepared a group on Facebook where you can get the alerts about Jobs in AZ Engineering Associates Lahore for Punjab Highway Projects If you know any job opportunity in Private Sector both permanent Jobs and Jobs on contract basis you can contact us, you can inform us about the job.





If you are a fresh or experienced civil engineer living in Pakistan and seeking Civil Engineering Job in Highway Engineering than don’t post or share your CV here as we are not a part of the department and we are just sharing it so that you can get the opportunity to apply for this job.

MKRdezign

Contact Form

Name

Email *

Message *

Powered by Blogger.
Javascript DisablePlease Enable Javascript To See All Widget