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Shotcrete and Gunite Difference and Definition

The guniting is the most effective process of repairing concrete work which has been damaged due to inferior work or other reasons. It is also used for providing an impervious layer. The gunite is a mixture of cement and sand, the usual proportion being 1:3. A cement gun is used to deposit this mixture on the concrete surface under a pressure of about 20 to 30 N/cm2. Shotcrete is concrete (or…
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Characteristics of a Good Formwork

Concrete being plastic material in fresh state, has to kept within an enclosure (moulds) till it gain reasonable strength, this temporary structure which has to be built for any concrete member is called “Formwork”. Click me to read more about the Form work defintion and other defintions Characteristics of a Good Formwork Basic Requirements of a Good Formwork: @import…
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Fatigue (Alligator) Cracking

The word Fatigue means repetitive action of loads, thus fatigue cracking by names means cracking due to the repetition of loads. As the pavement is subjected to number of vehicles of different sizes and loads the stress keeps on pilling up and thus the cracks appears which…
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What is Timber, Merits, Demerits Growth and Structure

Variety of Construction Materials are being used now a days depending upon the availability and transportation cost, lesser the material available expensive will be the structure and as a result structural engineer might have to think to change the material accordingly. In mountains where brick is not easily available due to less availability of plain surface timber is preferred, similarly in…
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Retaining Walls, the support soil needs to stand up

We know that soil or any other loose granular material has a safe angle of repose at which the soil or material can withstand without any requirement of confinement or support. But due to practical and property restrictions we in some cases need to cut or fill the soil at some unstable angle which if unsupported might cause failure of the slope. Concrete Retaining Wall If we provide…
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Things you should know about rutting

A very common premature pavement failure in most countries is seen as a surface depression in the wheel path. The depression which is formed is called a rut and along the rut uplift occurs due to shearing. Ruts are particularly evident after a rain when they are filled with…
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How Traffic engineers plays with speed? Definition, Types, Relations

Traffic speed – traffic speed characteristics – how we can define speed, distance covered by an object in unit time Speed and its role in traffic engineering U = s/tIn transportation engineering – speed is defined as the distance(s) that is covered by a vehicle in specific time (t). Speed is the most critical aspect of the geometric design – the roads are designed according to the…
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What is civil engineering? an introduction

Before going to the actual subject or theoretical background of the topic; let me explain why this question is mostly asked? Basically, we as humans have a natural quest for knowledge; we observe different phenomena around us and try to investigate the scientific cause…
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Dictionary of Civil Engineers download full pdf

Terminologies are different for different sorts of fields of life like medical, sciences, information technology, engineering like mechanical, electrical and civil engineering. In our everyday life we as a civil engineers need to memorize alot of words and terms which some…
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Concrete testing by Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV)

How many times as a civil engineer, you have to test a concrete? Hunh! So many Times! But most of the time you find concrete cubes and cylinders being crushed by Compression Testing Machine (CTM) in the laboratory. Now that broken cylinder or cube is useless for you, although you can recycle it but even then a recycled material can never meet the standard of first class material. Think about…
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