Well, the word door is a very common and a very widespread word; however, today we will explain and enlighten some of the unique types of doors you might not be familiar with. Before going into that let’s first talk about technical definition of door in civil engineering.
“The arrangements made to provide free and easy access inside and outside the rooms of a building are called Doors. “
Any building is a must to have such arrangement; in this definition free means very easily not in the sense of money. Every room in a building has a separate purpose and a unique usage. The purpose to provide a door to the room can be explained as ;
- To provide privacy to the occupants.
- To ensure safety and security to the valuables.
- To provide ventilation as and when required.
- To provide free and easy access in and out of the room.
- To provide luminosity and illumination to the lounge or waiting areas.
- To protect the occupants from mosquitoes and other similar creatures.
This arrangement for access; defined as a door above, is also sometimes provided outside the building through the boundary wall enclosing the structure but that is commonly termed as a Gate.
After this brief introduction that what the door is?, why it is provided and what are its benefits. Let’s move towards our main objective of this article; which is, Different types of common doors.
- Ledged and battened doors
- Ledged, battened and braced doors
- Framed, ledged, battened and braced doors
- Framed and paneled doors
- Paneled and glazed doors
- Flush doors
- Louvered doors
- Revolving doors
- Sliding Doors
- Collapsible Doors
- Rolling Steel Doors
- Wire-gauged doors
Before moving into the details of all the above mentioned 12 different types of door; let me make it clear to you that all these doors have unique purpose and a function or intention to use.
Ledged and battened doors
These are the simplest type of doors. They consist of battens (each 15 cm wide and 0.8 to 1.8 cm thick) which are screwed to three horizontal members called ledges. Top ledge is 10 cm x 3.2 cm in cross-section, middle and bottom ledges have section of 17.5 to 20 cm x 3.2 cm. Battens are generally tongued and grooved. These doors are mostly used for narrow openings in temporary houses where appearance is not the main consideration.
Ledged, battened and braced doors
This type of door is similar to a ledged and battened door except that they consist of ledges and battens which are strengthened with the help of diagonal members known as braces. The width of braces varies from 10 to 15 cm and thickness is 3.2 cm. The inclination of the braces should be kept towards the side of the shutter to be hinged to the frame as shown in fig.
These doors can be used for comparatively large openings in ordinary houses and in places where appearance is not so important.
Framed, ledged, battened and braced doors
This is a better and strong type of door. They consist of two stiles, three rails and two braces forming the frame-work of each leaf (shutter) to which he battens are fixed. The frame-work is made with mortice and tenon joints.
The top and bottom rails and the stiles have full thickness while the middle (lock) rail and braces are thinner in section to allow the battens to pass over them and finish flush with the top and bottom rails.
The battens should butt into the rebate in the top and bottom rails. These shutters are hung to the frame by means of butt hinges. These doors are mostly used as external doors in ordinary residential buildings, shops etc.
Framed and paneled doors
This is the most common type of door. They are made in different designs but their principle for construction is same as in other doors. They consist of frame-work of styles, rails and muntins or mullions of same thickness.
The space between them is filled with panels. The vertical styles are continuous from top to bottom and rails are jointed to the styles.
On inside of the styles and rails, grooves are made to receive the panels which may be of raised or flush type. These shutters are hung to the frame by means of butt hinges. These doors are mostly used in residential and other buildings as internal and external doors.
|Paneled and glazed doors|
Paneled and glazed doors
The construction of this type of door is similar to a framed and paneled door but in such doors glass panes are fixed. In these doors, instead of wooden panels in their top portions, sash bars to receive the glass panes are used.
Sash bars are equal in thickness to the full thickness of the shutter, with 2.5 cm with and having 1 to 3 cm rebate according to the size of the doors. The size of the rebate is generally 1.6 cm x 0.6 cm. Each glass pane is secured in position by small nails and is bedded with the help of lime-putty.
It may be either 1/3rd glazed at top and2/3 paneled at bottom, or 2/3 glazed at top or 1/3 panelled at bottom. These doors are mostly used in public buildings, hospitals, colleges, offices and also in residential buildings.
|Paneled and glazed doors|
These doors are made with plywood and give better appearance. They are solid and semi-solid door and are constructed and finished in many ways. The inner core is either framed or laminated. The later makes a more solid and lasting door. These doors do not catch dust and are easy to clean.
With the production of plywood in large quantities, flush doors are becoming more and more popular these days. These doors are mainly used as internal doors in residential buildings, restaurants, public and other important buildings.
These doors are similar to glazed and paneled doors. But in these doors, the spaces between the rails and stiles are filled with series of wooden members called louvers.
The louvers are fixed into the stiles or made movable. In order that they may be effective and economical, are fixed at an angle of 45 degree.
These doors allow free passage of light air and secure privacy and safety. But they collect dust easily and are difficult to clean.
These doors are mostly used in school, workshops or at place where sufficient privacy is required besides admitting air and light freely.
These doors consist of four shutters, arranged diagonally, revolving on a common vertical axis. Paneled, glazed or both types of shutters may be used for these doors. They allow entrance on one side and exit on the other side.
These doors are used where there is constant foot traffic of people coming in and going out of an entrance in public buildings such as offices, banks, restaurants, hotels, theatres, and other public buildings. They are also used in hill stations to prevent strong wind blowing inside the building directly.
These doors consist of single or double steel or wooden shutters. They slide into the pockets provided in the masonry wall. These doors are commonly used for workshops, garages and on windows in shops etc.
These doors consist of frame work of rolled steel sections and are provided with rollers at bottom which roll on rails. These doors are rolled when they are to be opened or collapsed. Flat iron pieces are used cross wise and are fixed to vertical flat iron pieces at 12 to 15 cm centre to centre so as to form parallelograms. When pushed, the parallelograms get collapsed.
These doors are used in public buildings such as banks, railway stations, sheds, godowns, workshops etc.
|Sliding Doors||Collapsible Doors|
Rolling Steel Doors
These doors are generally made of thin corrugated steel plates ( or sheets) which roll up on a roller or drum. The shutter slides in grooves in the side walls. The shutter may be counter balanced by sprigs so that it can be easily raised on lowered by hand.
These doors are sufficiently strong and may be safely used in exposed places. These doors are mostly used for main entrance of shops, showrooms, and garages
|Rolling Steel Doors|
These doors are normally hung on the same chowkhat (frame) as other door and window shutters of the frame. The thickness of the frame is increased suitably to cut the rebate for the wire gauged shutters.
These doors allow free passage of the air and light and at the same time do not allow entrance of flies and mosquitoes inside the rooms of a building. These doors are mostly used in kitchens and dining rooms of residential buildings