What is a Surge Chamber in a Hydropower Project?

In a hydroelectric plant, the flow of water to a turbine must be decreased rapidly whenever there is a sudden drop in load.  This results in high water-hammer pressures and may need a very strong and hence expensive pipe. Surge chambers are used to handle this situation. Typical Definition for a surge chamber can be :- A surge chamber is a vertical standpipe connected to the pipeline (Figure).
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84 MW New Bong Escape Hydropower Project, Pakistan

The 84 MW New Bong Escape Hydropower Project, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan (the “Project”) is a run-of-the river hydropower scheme without any dam, new storage, displacement/resettlement of human habitation, change in the hydrological regime or any other…