What are the main Constituents of Concrete?
- Binding Materials: It is usually a paste of cement in water and is relatively costly constituent of the concrete. Lime and some other materials may also be used as binding material.
- Filler Materials: It is required to reduce the cost and, at the same time, to provide sufficient strength. Most commonly filler material is composed of natural round gravel or crushed stone but other materials like brick-ballast, bloated clay and iron chips may also be used in certain cases, filler material may also be termed as “aggregates”.
What are main types of concrete?
There are two main types of concrete to be used for construction purposes namely Plain Cement Concrete and Reinforced Cement Concrete
Plain Cement Concrete
P.C.C. (Part of cement : parts of sand: Part of Coarse Aggregate)
- Lean Concrete: If the cement content in concrete is lesser than about 10 %, the concrete is called lean concrete and is commonly used under the floors and foundations. P.C.C. (1:4:8) and P.C.C. (1:6:12) are the examples of lean concrete.
- Normal Concrete: If the cement content is about 10 to 15 %, the concrete is called normal concrete, the example being P.C.C. (1:2:4). Normal concrete is used in D.P.C., R.C.C. and floor finishes.
- Rich Concrete: In Rich concrete, the cement content is more than about 15% as in P.C.C. (1:1.5:3). It is used for R.C.C. when smaller structural members are required to support heavier loads for architectural reasons.
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Reinforced Cement Concrete
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Damp Proof Course (D.P.C);
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Ceiling Height (C.H)
Sill Level (S.L)
Finished Floor Level (FFL)
Ground Level (G.L)
Riser and Treads
Flight of Stairs
Number of risers = Height to be covered in inches / riser in inches
Landing in Stairs
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Basic Definitions and Terminologies in Civil Building Drawing