Direct Shear Test (Apparatus, Procedure, Calculation)

Shear strength is the ability of soil to withstand forces that may cause it to fail during sliding or shearing is known as shear strength. It is a measure of the soil’s resistance to these pressures. The balance between the applied shear force and the resistance offered by cohesion and friction determines the shear strength … Read more

Tunnels and their stability mechanisms

Tunnels and their stability mechanisms Introduction Tunnels can be defined as underground construction for the connection between two destinations to build up an effective means of transportation. Tunnels are made for various purposes such as Railway transportation, for highways, for water supply and for communication cables etc. Tunnel construction has several benefits e.g. less disturbances … Read more

Soil Salinity Reasons and Treatment?

If the concentration of harmful salts in the root zone of a plant increases to such an extent that plant growth is effected, this situation is called Salinity. Salinity is the measure of all the salts dissolved in water. Salinity is usually measured in parts per thousand (ppt or % ). The average ocean salinity … Read more

Sand Boils due to Liquefaction

Liquefaction produces so many drastic effects and damages to the structures and foundations build over its effected soil. The buildings and structures whose foundations are on soil affected by liquefaction will experience a sudden loss of support which will result in drastic and irregular settlement of the building causing cracking of foundations and damage to … Read more

Coduto Conditions for Soil Liquefaction

Liquefaction is a state of water- saturated, mostly cohesion-less soil whose shear strength is reduced to zero due to pore water pressure produced by vibration during an earthquake. The soil starts behaving like a liquid. Please See original Article to know more about Soil Liquefaction  Donald P. Coduto a Professor of Civil Engineering in California … Read more