Tunnels and their stability mechanisms Introduction Tunnels can be defined as underground construction for the connection between two destinations to build up an effective means of transportation. Tunnels are made for various purposes such as Railway transportation, for highways, for ...

If the concentration of harmful salts in the root zone of a plant increases to such an extent that plant growth is effected, this situation is called Salinity. Salinity is the measure of all the salts dissolved in water. Salinity ...

Liquefaction produces so many drastic effects and damages to the structures and foundations build over its effected soil. The buildings and structures whose foundations are on soil affected by liquefaction will experience a sudden loss of support which will result ...

Liquefaction is a state of water- saturated, mostly cohesion-less soil whose shear strength is reduced to zero due to pore water pressure produced by vibration during an earthquake. The soil starts behaving like a liquid. Please See original Article to ...