There are many individuals within the construction industry who will, at some time in their careers, become professionally involved in either litigation or arbitration or adjudication. The laws which are applied in the construction industry are both of a general and a specialist nature.

They are general in the sense that they embrace the tents of law appropriate to all legal decisions and are special since the interpretation of construction contracts and documents requires a particular knowledge and understanding of the construction industry. Note, however, that the interpretation and application of law will not be contrary to or in opposition to the established legal principles and precedents found elsewhere.

It is appropriate at this stage to consider briefly the framework of the English legal systems.

Title of the Book

Contractual Procedures in Construction Industry
Fifth Edition

Author of the Book


Contents of the Book

Part 1 Contract LAW
1. The English Legal System
2. Legal Aspects of Contracts
3. Discharge of Contracts
4. Remedies for Breach of Contract
5. Settlement of Disputes
6. Forms of Contract
7. Contract Strategy
8. Contract Procurement
9. Contract Selection
10. Contract Documents
11. Design and Build
12. Procurement in the Twenty-First Century
13. Lean Construction
Process and Parties
14. Partnering and Supply Chain Management
15. The Construction Process
16. Parties Involved in the Construction Industry
17. Site Communication
18. Constructing Excellence in the Built Environment
19. Health, Safety and Welfare
20. Sustainable Construction
21. Introduction, Articles of Agreement, Apendix
22. Quality of Working during construction
23. Costs of Construction
24. Time Factor of Construction
25. Works by Other Parties
26. Injury and Insurance
27. Fluctuations in Costs
28. Financial Matters
29. Clauses of a General Nature
Subtract Conditions
30. JCT Nominated Subcontract Documentations
31. JCT Nominated Subcontract Conditions
32. Domestic subcontract conditions
Other Contract Conditions
Agreement for Minor Building Works
JCT Intermediate form of Building Contract

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You might have heard a structure called Cofferdam, it is a structure built to divert water either of river or groundwater so as to make a dry, safe and sound environment for the construction activity to carry out. This cofferdam can be a typical retaining wall type or it can be one shape we will discuss in this article which is called secant pile or tangent pile. 

Pile foundation is a type of deep foundation in which the load is transferred to the underneath hard rock several meters into the soil with the help of a cast in-situ or pre-cast shafts of concrete or steel or timber. 
Definition of Secant Piles
These piles are sometimes constructed in series of drilled shafts overlapping and intersecting each other to form a wall type structure and are called secant piles. These shafts are mostly cast in-situ and can be a temporary or permanent part of the structure depending on the situation. 
These piles are reinforced either with reinforcement bars or with cold formed steel beam sections like I beam and are constructed either by drilling under mud or augering. 

Construction Methodology 

Primary Piles are first casted after auguring and drilling in the ground which is usually not reinforced and are having a gap or space for secondary piles. After primary piles gain sufficient strength secondary piles are casted in between the primary piles having a typical overlap of 3 inches (8 cm). 
A typical wall constructed in such a way consists of 36 inches diameter and have center to center space of 30 inches. 
Regarding concrete strength, it depends on the requirement. The general procedure adopted is that primary piles are of low strength as it is to be drilled again while the secondary piles are of high strength to ensure a water-tight structure. However, all high strength and all low strength combination can also be adopted depending on the site conditions and the requirement of the structure. In secant piles sometimes anchors can be used to provide additional lateral support, if needed. 

Uses of Secant Piles

The secant piles are best choice in following circumstances :- 
1. New building basements 
2. For Sub-structures that are in close proximity to existing structures and thus requiring restraint 
3. Limited working space 
4. In order to avoid excessive excavation 
5. To control ground water movement 
6. Resist lateral pressure 
7. Seal groundwater inflow 
8. Slope stability
Secant piles have many advantages and are given preference over to sheet piles due to increased construction alignment flexibility. Increased wall stiffness and can be installed in difficult ground (cobbles/boulders) and will also ensure less noisy construction. 

The country’s health and safety standards have improved markedly over the past few years, especially in the offshore oil industry. In their 2016 Health and Safety Report, Oil and Gas UK detailed the current working conditions of offshore workers, and the statistics make for some very good reading. The good folks at Fraser Hydraulics have helped us dissect the report:

Worker Safety Performance

2015 was an excellent year for workers’ personal safety, as for the first time in over 15 years we didn’t witness any fatal accidents. The results are even better in the non-fatal accident category, with accidents per 100,000 workers dropping from 569 in 2008 to 430, representing a 24% decrease over seven years.

As for the accidents that did occur, the over-seven-day injury and specified injury rates per 100,000 have significantly reduced too. The over-seven-day injury rate in 2015 was the lowest since the calculations began in 1995, at 249. As for the latter, the numbers fell by 38% from 2000 to 2013, and then by a further 20% in the next two years to drop from 129 to 103.

Considering the level of risk involved in offshore oil drilling, it’s terrific news that these figures are significantly below those of other, safer industries like construction, manufacturing and transport.

What’s even better is that the UKCS isn’t just outperforming other industries in the country it’s become one of the safest oil industries in the entire Europe. The lost injury time frequency (workdays lost per million man-hours) stands at 0.7, which is better than neighbouring countries like Norway, Ireland, and Denmark, and much better than the continental average.

Process Safety

Aside from the injuries sustained by the workers themselves, the whole industry has got much safer as a whole. Dangerous occurrences like fires, explosions, weather damage, and hydrocarbon releases (HCRs) were reduced from 425 occurrences in 2013 to almost 300 in two years’ time, representing a 30% decrease. HCRs alone have fallen nearly 70% since 2004, dropping from 273 to 87.

Operator Safety Performance Benchmarking

Oil and Gas UK carry out a yearly benchmarking exercise that allows participating duty holders to find out how well they’re doing in terms of safety performance. An analysis of 28 operators revealed that 2015 saw the lowest number of reportable injuries since the analysis started out in 2006, with an average of 1.54.

The fact that the UKSC is doing so well in terms of health and safety is wonderful news for all the workers themselves, and their concerned families. It also reiterates to the public that no matter what the oil prices may be worker’s safety will always remain a priority to the companies in the oil industry.

Have you ever wondered how the bridges spanning a river of thousands of meters width, stand in the flowing water? How the labor and workers can construct these piers and caissons? How civil engineers can construct piles of several kilometers into the ground by avoiding the underground water and letting concrete stand in it with full required strength?

You will be able to answer all of these questions after reading this article. 
Civil Engineers can play with forces of nature, they can create holes into the rocks of kilometers length, they can divert the direction of river flow and many other examples have proved this fact. 
Water is an ingredient and a major strength-deciding factor for concrete. Water cement ratio is a major research variable used in past decades and have very interesting and exciting results. This water initiates the hydration reaction in the concrete which is followed by hardening of the matrix and thus the concrete achieve its final shape. 
The major trouble you will face if you increase the water in the concrete is cement washout in which the concrete with plenty of water will wash out the cement and then the slurry will escape from the matrix through pores of the formwork and thus the concrete will be deprived of cement content and hence the required strength will not be there. 
A watertight rigid pipe usually of 200 mm to 300 mm in diameter having a funnel type hopper at the top and with a loose plug seal at the bottom discharge end is used to place concrete under the ground into the water. The lower end of the pipe is kept immersed in fresh concrete so that the rising concrete from the bottom displaces the water without washing out the cement content. This pipe is called Tremie and hence named Tremie method of underground concreting. 
What is Tremie Method of Concreting? 
The Tremie method works using gravity as the main driving force.  The tremie pipe is of suitable length depending on the situation and in-situ conditions, the tremie pipes can be added more by coupling with one another.  The concrete to be used in this method usually have a slump in the range of 150 mm to 200 mm. 
One end of the tremie pipe is always to be kept into the concrete upto a depth of 1 to 1.5 m. This method is mostly used for pile foundation. The reason to keep the lower end of tremie pipe immersed in the concrete is to prevent intermixing of both concrete and water. 
Tremie method is best suitable and convenient for pouring large amount of high flowable concrete. Tremie method should be done carefully and following points should be considered :- 
1. The tremie pipe during concrete must be raised along with concrete placement so that the tremie may not get stuck which otherwise will cause many problems and may not even be removed from the bore hole. 
2. The tremie pipe must not be of aluminum alloy as that will adversely affect the concrete due to chemical reactions between them therefore it should be avoided. 
3. The diameter of the pipe, although it is between 200 to 300 mm but it should be sufficient enough keeping in the view the aggregate size so that they may not get stuck and cause blockage of the pipe.  For 150 mm to 200 mm pipe diameter the limit for aggregate size is 19 to 40 mm. 
4. The tremie pipe from the other end must be sealed properly with polythene sheet or wooden plate so that the water may not enter the pipe and it should be dry. 
5. The tremie must be completely filled with concrete before giving jerk and breaking the seal. The concrete must be ensured to be in the pipe in order to avoid water to get into the pipe. 
6. The sufficient supply of concrete from the batch plant should be ensured in order to avoid cold joint which will clearly deteriorate the quality and hence workability of the structure. 

What if our buildings could help us be more productive

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The Lagan Weir, completed in 1994, at a cost of £14m, is located across the Lagan between the Queen Elizabeth Bridge and the M3 bridge (completed around the same time) in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The Lagan Weir was jointly funded by the Corporation and the European Commission. It was constructed by Charles Brand Ltd and designed by Ferguson and McIlveen.

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Bar Bending Schedule or BBS is actually a detailed tabulated worksheet showing the particulars of reinforcing bars as needed in reinforcement drawings of a structure. The phrase “Bar Bending” is so because at the steel yard where different types of reinforcement are cut and bent this table is used as a reference to bend the reinforcement bars in desired and required shape and sizes.

What is Bar Bending Schedule?
What is Bar Bending Schedule?

What information a bar bending schedule has?

Bar Bending Schedule is expected to contain all the important information and summarizes in tabular form. A good bar bending schedule must contain the following information :-

  1. Bar Mark No.
  2. Cut Length
  3. No. of Pieces
  4. Bar Cut Shape
  5. Bar Diameter
To know more about each of the above information, how to calculate and what it should be please follow this link. 

Therefore now we are able to prepare a Template of a bar bending schedule; a typical bar bending schedule would be like this :-

A typical Bar Bending Schedule Table
A typical Bar Bending Schedule Table

Now from here you might be asking one question that what actually is the need of this tedious job of preparing Bar Bending Schedule.

What is the need of Bar Bending Schedule?

The simplest answer for this question would be that money matters a lot and reinforcement bars, in any project, takes a healthy share of the financial term of the project. Therefore in order to purchase material we need an estimate which should be near-to-actual during execution, this estimate may differs from engineer estimate which is only on the basis of experience and is only taking construction or bidding tender drawings as reference which are general and typical.

Thus with the help of Bar Bending Schedule you would have a clear figure about how much reinforcement you need to purchase of various diameters. After purchase the reinforcement the next phase is to cut and bend.

This cutting and bending must follow the bar shape shown in the bar bending schedule, thus before execution bar bending schedule is a must-to-have document at site. It is a good working technique because we cannot bear any error or mistake during this cutting and bending which otherwise will cause financial problems for all concerned.

The next phase after project execution is witness of the quantity by engineer at site as per drawings and verification of this quantity for further payment and financial steps. Engineer during steel fixing check the rebar as per the shop drawing and ensure it matches the bar bending schedule duly approved by the quantity and measurement engineer.

Thus for the payment of the contractor by client this document is also needed.
The contractor actually submits a document called Quantity Witness Report (QWR) to the engineer having attached all the documents required like, reinforcement approved inspection requests, approved structural shop drawings, approved bar bending schedules. This is then verified by the engineer.

What are the qualities of a good bar bending schedule?

It is always ensured that the person preparing the bar bending schedule must have a solid site execution experience. The rebar designation and cut length must be carefully selected as it will be the defining point for the scrap which will be remained after cutting and bending.

To know more about what are the qualities of a good bar bending schedule follow below link :-

How to define a good bar bending schedule? 

How to Construct and develop Bar Bending Schedule of a RCC Beam

Here is an example of how to calculate and estimate Bar Bending Schedule of a simple RCC Beam; Please follow below link 

Now let us develop bar bending schedule manually from the start and for the beginners who are just about to dive in this field.

Longitudinal Section of a Typical Beam
Longitudinal Section of a Typical Beam

Sections of RCC Beam
Sections of RCC Beam

In this example we will assume a rectangular beam supporting from both ends probably on walls having a span of 10 feet. All the work here will be done in fps system however the procedure and method is same no matter what unit you select for your project.

Step No. 1 – Identify and Demark the bars with a unique Bark Annotation Name

I have already explained about the reason and definition of bar annotation or bar mark no. Let us practically do it in our example.

Now if, just for clarity, I separate and identify the bars grouped in identical shape or length style than we can have following types and name of bars.

Rebar Annotation Pattern
Rebar Annotation Pattern

Now the key or trick in doing this is to first identify the bar that is similar as far as length and shape is concerned and give all of them the same name after this go for other rebars.

In above example Bar No. (2) is used in most of the locations after which it is (1) and (3).

Step 2 – Calculate the Bar Length and Draw Shape 

Now we will calculate the bar length one by one;-

Bar No. 1 : It is continue bar that runs throughout the span from one end to the other at top and bottom. It is 1 nos at top and 3 nos in bottom.

Bar No.1 have end hook which needs to be calculated; The end hook at 90 degree angle is taken as 12 times diameter of bar. It is #4 bar having dia of ½ inches thus 12 x (1/4) = 3 inches

Standard Bar Hooks
Standard Bar Hooks

Other dimension of the bar is the span of the beam as shown i.e. 10 feet thus the bar total length would be 120 + 3 + 3 inches = 126 inches

Bar No. 2  : It is negative reinforcement provided at top of short length upto 2 feet 10 inches as shown. It also have a hook of 90 degrees at the end with length of 3 inches as calculated above.  Thus its total length would be calculated as 34 + 3 = 37 inches

Bar No. 3 : It is reinforcement specially provided to cater the flexural stresses at the bottom of the beam during sagging. Its length is shown in the figure as span – (0.1 L * 0.1 L)  which is
120 – 2(16) = 88 inches

Bar No. 4  These are the shear ties or stirrups which are provided at spacing of 4 inches center to center near end supports and at spacing of 8 inches in the middle of the span as shown in the bar annotation diagram.  Generally the shear stirrups are placed at 2 inches away from the face of the support.

Typical Rebar Cover for Common Structures
Typical Rebar Cover for Common Structures

Lets first calculate the length of one shear stirrups ;

The width of the beam is 13 inches if we subtract cover from it which is 1 ½ inches for beams from both ends than top length would be

13 – 2 (1.5) = 10 inches

For depth wise length of stirrup; depth of beam is 18 inches thus after subtracting cover from top and bottom we will get :-

18 – 2(1.5) = 15 inches

Standard Tie and Stirrup Hooks
Standard Tie and Stirrup Hooks

The both ends of the stirrups have a end hook of 135 degrees whose length is usually taken as 6d or minimum 3 inches. Thus for # 3 shear ties the end hook length would be 1 ½ inches. Thus we will add 3 inches in above length.

The total length of shear tie would be

10 + 10 + 15 + 15 + 3  = 53 inches

To calculate the quantity we will simply divide the spacing of the shear ties with the length in which it is to be provided. Thus,

For end portion

L/4 – 4.5 (half width of wall) – 2 in (gap to be left before face of support)

34 – 4.5  - 2 = 27.5 inches with spacing of 4 inches c/c

Quantity would be 27.5 / 4 = 6.875 say 7

It will be provided at both ends than 14 stirrups for ends.

For middle portion

The space in which stirrups will be provided is L – 2( L/4)

120 – 2 (34) = 52 inches

Thus the quantity = 52 /  8 = 6.5 say 7

Thus the total quantity would be 7 + 7 = 14 stirrups.

Step 3 – Draw table and show the details in summary 

Bar Bending Schedule
Bar Bending Schedule

Step 4  - Show the summary showing the weight of each type of rebar required

Summary of BBS
Summary of BBS

That’s all

I hope you have enjoyed the article because it is written in simple English and I have tried to cover the very basics so that anybody can understand and implement.

It is always ensured that the person preparing the bar bending schedule must have a solid site execution experience. The rebar designation and cut length must be carefully selected as it will be the defining point for the scrap which will be remained after cutting and bending. 

1. The bar bending schedule must ensure to minimize the cutting and bending loss or reinforcement. 

What are the qualities of a good bar bending schedule?
What are the qualities of a good bar bending schedule?

2. The bar designation and shape must be carefully selected in order to avoid any confusion and problem during fixing at site. 

3. The bar bending schedule must include the type of splicing and coupling to be used for bars longer than 12 m as the nominal factory cut size throughout the world is 12 m.  In general due to minimal site execution error splice or overlap is usually recommended as the coupler, though of same strength and shape, is sometimes difficult depending on the site situation and if failed can prove dangerous and life threatening in some projects. 

4. Each bar bending schedule must have a summary at the end showing cumulative weight and length of each dia of the rebar in the schedule. 
5.  In general practice the overlap of the rebar is not generally paid to the contractor, this factor must be kept in mind while preparing the shop drawings and bar bending schedule. 

Bar Bending Schedule or BBS is actually a detailed tabulated worksheet showing the particulars of reinforcing bars as needed in reinforcement drawings of a structure. The phrase “Bar Bending” is so because at the steel yard where different types of reinforcement are cut and bent this table is used as a reference to bend the reinforcement bars in desired and required shape and sizes.

What information a bar bending schedule should contain?
What information a bar bending schedule should contain?

Bar Bending Schedule summarizes and should contain the following Information :-

1. Bar Mark No. 

In Contractual practice of construction projects, the designed made by consultants termed as the Engineers are issued as Construction Drawings by a covering letter termed as Drawing Transmittal Slip (DTS). These construction drawings are typical drawings only showing the criteria of design and requirement as per the standards of design and detailing.

Keeping in view of these construction drawings, contractor prepares his own shop drawings showing detailed sketches and sections as needed by the structure and as desired by the engineer. These shop drawings are submitted for review and approval of engineer which must be approved prior to the execution of work at site.

The structural drawings showing reinforcement in construction drawing only annotate the diameter and spacing along with orientation and occasionally quantity but not too often.

The structural shop drawings on the other hand show the quantity, orientation, Bar designation also known as Bar Mark No. or Bar Annotation No. It is a unique designation of the reinforcement bar which is noted at the end in Bar Bending Schedule.

The two reinforcing bars must be given different designation no. if the bar length is changing or if the bar shape is changing.

2. Cut Length

It is the nominal length as per the requirement of the structure and construction drawing, usually noted in mm. The cut length may or may not contain the bending length which is the extra length needed to bend a large diameter rebar at angle of 30, 45 or 90 depending on requirement. If the bending length is contained in it than during verification of this BBS by consultant they prepare bend deduction sheet and will deduct the bend as it is not payable in most of the circumstances.

3. No.  of Pieces 

Bar Bending schedule also provide the quantity and number of  pieces of each designated bar. It is calculated by dividing the space / structural dimensions by the spacing as required by the design. For example if the length / span of beam is 6000 mm and it has shear ties at spacing of 300 mm center to center i.e. c/c than the quantity or no. of pieces would be 6000 / 300 = 20 nos.

4. Bar Cut Shape

It is the most important column in the Bar bending schedule as far as the bending and cutting of reinforcement is concerned at site. Each bar no. can have different shape depending on the shape of the structure to be reinforced. Thus the bar may have a hook or a bend in any angle which must be properly mentioned. If the bar is provided with a curve than a clear figure showing radius of curvature must be given. Similarly if the reinforcing bar is confined in a sloping portion and the bar is required to have a varying length than a delta is calculated showing the unit increment or decrement of rebar length and must be shown in the bar bending schedule (will be explained later on).

5. Bar Diameter

Each bar No. is shown with a diameter of rebar usually in mega projects the diameter used is of #4, #6, #8 or #10 & #11. Small diameter rebar is used in construction joints or as temperature reinforcement and larger diameter bars are main reinforcement bars.

Each Bar Diameter have a nominal corresponding unit weight which is used at the end of the bar bending schedule showing the weight of each category of bar diameter.

Table showing Each Bar Diameter corresponding to No. and Nominal Unit Weight
Table showing Each Bar Diameter corresponding to No. and Nominal Unit Weight

Saad Iqbal

{picture#} Hi there, I am Saad Iqbal from Pakistan - Founder of Iamcivilengineer. I am Currently Working in a Consultancy Firm as Junior Engineer and am a Passionate blogger and a Civil Engineer from UET Taxila, Pakistan. {facebook#} {twitter#} {google#} {pinterest#} {youtube#}


{picture#} Hi there, I am Saad Iqbal from Pakistan - Founder of Iamcivilengineer. I am Currently Working in a Consultancy Firm as Junior Engineer and am a Passionate blogger and a Civil Engineer from UET Taxila, Pakistan. {facebook#} {twitter#} {google#} {pinterest#} {youtube#}
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