Foundation engineering has been practiced as an art, without help of science, since time immemorial up to 1920 when it had  achieved a considerable amount of refinement. It was in the earlier  1920s that a concerted effort was  made to study and understand the physical laws governing the behavior of sub surface materials, i.e..  soil from which foundations derived their  support and on whose behavior its own  behavior depends. This is the time when study of soil mechanics was started and it was in  1919 when  Karl Terzaghi, popularly known as 'father of  soil mechanics', made successful attempt to  explain  the phenomenon of settlement on a scientific basis.

Title of the Book

Raft Foundation
Design and Analysis with a Practical Approach

Raft foundation 

Author of Book

Sharat Chandra Gupta

Contents of the Book

  • Introduction
  • Need of Raft Foundation
  • Types of Raft Foundation
  • Survey of Available Literature
  • Design Approach and Consideration
  • Structural Designers Dilemma
  • Studies Carried Out on Effect of Various Parameters on Design of Raft Foundation
  • Studies carried out on analysis and design of piled rafts
  • Joints in Rafts
  • Summary Of studies
  • Factors affecting choice of method of analysis
  • Guidelines

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It was the height of the evening rush hour on Aug. 1, 2007, when the 35W bridge in Minneapolis fell into the Mississippi River. The bridge carried an estimated 140,000 vehicles per day, and the National Transportation Safety Board cited a design flaw as the likely main cause of the collapse. A gusset plate holding the bridge together failed, bringing the bridge down and changing the lives of many Minnesotans forever. Killing 13 people and injuring 145 others. This is a devastating effect of the USA neglecting its infrastructure and it looks set to continue to be neglected.

Tens of millions of American cross over bridges every day without giving it much thought, unless they hit a pothole. But the infrastructure problem goes much deeper than pavement. It goes to crumbling concrete and corroded steel and the fact that nearly 70,000 bridges in America -- one out of every nine -- is now considered to be structurally deficient.

The majority of bridges were built over 50 years ago when cars and trucks were much lighter. Also they were only designed to last 50 years. Every day millions of people travel across bridges that either need to be replaced or undergo major repairs.

The problem lies with funding. Public spending on infrastructure has fallen to its lowest level since 1947. And the U.S. which used to have the finest infrastructure in the world, is now ranked 16th according to the World Economic Forum, behind Iceland, Spain, Portugal and the United Arab Emirates.

The Kelpies are a mythical set of horses that were said to be born from the sea. This was the initial inspiration behind this imposing and magnificent structure. The key here is the thought behind it. When engineers are tasked with a job, they must take into consideration the environment, culture, history of the area etc. and there are not many finer exhibitions of this than 'The Kelpies' which have been engineered into the very fabric of Falkirk.

The mythological associations behind the original brief have been absorbed by other sources of inspiration in the creative processes. The Kelpies are modeled on heavy horses and it is this theme of working horses which drove the project. They are the embodiment of the industrial history of Scotland and the Falkirk / Grange mouth area. Heavy horses would once have been the powerhouse of the area, working in the foundries, the fields, and farms and of course the canal itself, pulling boats along the Forth & Clyde from coast to coast. Falkirk was also home to reputedly the world’s biggest horse in the 1930′s named Carnera.

The materials of the sculptures are deliberately those of Scotland’s former industrial heartland. The towering horse heads have an industrial aesthetic with structural columns and beams visible through the riveted laser cut steel plates of the skin, the manes rendered as geometric overlapping slabs of steel. The entire structures are illuminated inside and out to create a stunning spectacle in hours of darkness. They elevate Falkirk and Grange mouth to national and international prominence and bring with them a sense of pride and ownership, having achieved global media coverage. They stand as a testament to the achievements of the past, a paean to artisanship and engineering.

Sequel to Pakistan's announcement last week about the construction of Torkham-Jalalabad Road Afghanistan, a Ground Breaking Ceremony was organized by the Afghan Ministry of Public Works at Jalalabad for laying an additional carriageway of the road by the Frontier Works Organisation. The 75 km long section is a part of the legendary Grand Trunk Road which connects Pakistan and Afghanistan through the historic Khyber Pass.

The ceremony was attended by Mr Muhammad Hanif Gardiwal, Acting Governor Nangarhar Province, Maj Gen Muhammad Afzal, Director General Frontier Works Organisation, Mr. Syed Ibrar Hussain, Ambassador of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Mr. Ahmed Ali Hazrat, Chairman of Provincial Council, Engineer Noorgul Mangal, Technical Deputy Minister (MoP W) and other higher officials related to the project from both the countries.

Speaking on the occasion, Mr Muhammad Hanif Gardiwal said that the highway will further strengthen the deep rooted ties between the two brotherly countries. We are grateful to the government and people of Pakistan for the gift of this road and improved facilities of communication will further strengthen the bonds of friendship”. He added.

The DG FWO said that the 75 km long, 2 lane additional carriageway will be constructed along the existing one which was completed back in 2006 by FWO. Entire cost of road construction will be borne by Pakistan. Total width of this road will now be expanded to 14.6 meter into a 4 lane carriageway.The highway will be constructed at par with the international standards to cater for all types of heavy traffic. 7 bridges and 6 underpasses are a part of the project to ensure smooth flow of traffic. DG added.

A type of foundation often used at the base of a column. It consists of one, two or more tiers of steel beams superimposed on a layer of concrete, adjacent tiers being placed at right angles to each other, while all tiers are encased in concrete. Grillage foundation is the most economical foundation in case of transferring heavy loads from columns to soil of low bearing capacity.

Please Note that the word tier is used for such an arrangement in which items are placed in layers one above the other like the seats that are placed in a cinema or auditorium.

Grillage Foundation

Definition and Uses of Grillage Foundation

Grillage foundations consist of a number of layers of beams usually laid at right angles to each other and used to disperse heavy point loads from the superstructure to an acceptable ground bearing pressure.

The grillage beam can be in any material, the most usual being either steel, precast concrete or timber. In some permanent situations, however, where unusual circumstances exist, such as an abundance of durable timber or the possible re-use of existing rolled steel sections, the grillage can prove both successful and economic. In permanent conditions durability becomes an important design factor and protection and/or the selection of suitable materials is a major part of the design.

Grillage foundation is an economical and lighter solution for transferring heavy structural loads to a soil weaker in bearing capacity. The arrangement of grillage foundation allows to have optimum area for pressure distribution.

Design of Grillage Foundaiton 

The design of the grillage is carried out by calculating the loads and moments applied from the superstructure and determining the required base area using a suitable allowable ground bearing pressure for the condition involved.

From this area, the number and size of each grillage layer can be decided. The layers are then designed to cantilever from the edge of the layer above, which determines the beam sizes required to resist the applied bending moments and shear forces.

If the grillage is encased in concrete and the sequence and method of construction and loading is compatible with the design requirements, the composite action of the beam and concrete can be exploited.

Types of Grillage Foundation 

Mostly there are two types of grillage foundation based on type of material used;
a) Steel grillage foundation
b) Timber grillage foundation
Mostly out of these two types the decision is made on the basis of availability of material and overall cost is the deciding factor.

Prestressed Concrete is basically concrete in which internal stresses of a suitable magnitude and sitribution are introduced so that the stresses resulting from external loads are counteracted to a desired degress. In reinforced concrete members, the pre-stress is commonly introduced by tensioning the steel reinforcement.

Title of the Book 

Prestressed Concrete

Author of the Book

N Krishna Raju


  • Introduction
  • Materials for Prestressed Concrete
  • Prestressing Systems
  • Analysis of Prestress and Bending Stress
  • Losses of Prestress
  • Deflection of Prestressed Concrete Memebers
  • Flexural Strength of Prestressed Concrete Sections
  • Shear and Torsional Resistance of Prestressed Concrete Members
  • Transfer of Prestress in Pretensioned Members
  • Anchorage Zone Stresses in Post-Tensioned Members
  • Limit State Design Criteria for Presressed Concrete Members
  • Design of Prestressed Concrete Sections
  • Design of Prentensioned and post-tensioned flexural members
  • Composite construction of presressed and in-situ concrete
  • Statically indeterminate structure
  • Prestressed Concrete Pipes and Tanks
  • Prestressed Concrete Slabs and Grid Floors
  • Prestressed Concrete Shell and Folded Plate Structures
  • Prestressed Concrete Poles, Piles, Sleepers
  • Introduction to Optimum Design of Prestressed Concrete Structure
  • Prestressed Concrete Bridges
  • Prestressed Concrete Trusses
  • Planning and Economical Aspects of Prestressed Concrete Structures
  • Construction of Prestressed Concrete Structures
  • Maintenance & Rehabilitation of Prestressed Concrete Structures 

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The Content is for Members Only !!!

This Book is available to download for our Bronze, Silver & Gold members, you can simply click the button below to signup / login for your membership and download the book now.

Sukkur IBA invites applications from dynamic, qualified and energetic candidates for the post of Asistant Engineer (CIVIL) BPS-17

Age limit ; Maximum 40 years


1st Class B.E / B.Sc. Engineering (4 Years) in Civil Engineering from HEC and PEC recognized Institute / University


Minimum 2 years relevant experience of project designing and supervision in reputable organization. Computer proficiency in MS – Office is mandatory. Candidates with knowledge of AUTOCAD and MS-Project will have an advantage.

How To apply 

Please Send your application on prescribed form, one recent color photograph, complete CV and relevant documents latest by 28th May, 2015 along with a Bank Draft / Pay Order of Rs. 1000 /  - in favour of “Sukkur IBA” at the following address:
Sukkur Institute of Business Administration

Saad Iqbal

{picture#} Hi there, I am Saad Iqbal from Pakistan - Founder of Iamcivilengineer. I am Currently Working in a Consultancy Firm as Junior Engineer and am a Passionate blogger and a Civil Engineer from UET Taxila, Pakistan. {facebook#} {twitter#} {google#} {pinterest#} {youtube#}


{picture#} Hi there, I am Saad Iqbal from Pakistan - Founder of Iamcivilengineer. I am Currently Working in a Consultancy Firm as Junior Engineer and am a Passionate blogger and a Civil Engineer from UET Taxila, Pakistan. {facebook#} {twitter#} {google#} {pinterest#} {youtube#}
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