To facilitate the simulations for networks of junctions, pipes, pumps, valves, and storage structures, calculating flow or water, pressures, tank elevations and concentrations of chemical species, water age and source tracing, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a windows based software called EPA-NET. It was released back in 1993 but the stable version of it was published  by Lewis A. Rossman in the year 2008.

EPA-NET is mostly used to design water distribution system for a community or a town etc. EPA NET was started as a research tool that improves our understanding of the movement and fate of drinking – water constituents within distribution systems.
The following are some of few applications of epanet.
- Flow in pipes
- Pressures at junctions
- Propagation of a contaminant
- Chlorine concentration
- Water age
It can also model various types of vales to check and regulate the flow.
Head-flow Curves of Pumps
Within EPANET, pumps are modeled using a head-flow curve, which defines the link between hydraulic head imparted to the system by the pump and flow conveyed by the pump.
EPANET uses a binary file format, but also includes the capability for importing and exporting data in .dxf metafiles and ASCII file format.
EPANET uses an input file with extension “.inp” various data can be imported in EPANET.

Download EPA-Net

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From Editors Desk

This software is a very handy tool, very easy to understand and use, the package given above also includes a help manual in which there are step by step guidelines for every step you needed to use EPANET. 
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Bahria Town is the Asia’s Largest Private Real Estate Developer and winner of 10 international property awards. Bahria town has introduced latest trends in urban planning, provision of world class amenities and infrastructure has changed the very texture of community living in Pakistan for about two decades now. Empowered by a remarkable team of 25,000 foreign and local qualified professional under a visionary leadership. Bahria Town is delivering iconic developments and revolutionary innovations thus creating a legacy for generations to come.
Bahria Town Karachi Jobs

Bahria Town Karachi has witnessed the most successful launch in Pakistan’s Real Estate history.
Human Resource Deparment Bahria town situated at Phase 8, Bahria Town, Rawalpindi has announced various vacancies in its various departments like operation, planning and design, finance and internal audit, human resource, procurement, workshop, services, QA/QC, store and warehouse department.

Among all them mostly the jobs are for civil engineers and details are as under;

Head of Projects

BSc. / BE Civil engineering preferably retired from army engineering corp. with rank of Brig. Or above, however, civil engineer with 20-25 years of experience of heading mega infrastructure and construction project can also apply.

General Manager (works) – Infrastructure

Minimum B.Sc. Civil engineering with 15-20 years relevant project management experience. Preferably experience of working in infrastructure work of mega project. Strong communication, people management and problem solving skills.

Project Manager (Infrastructure)

Minimum B.Sc. Civil engineering with 10 years experience of developing infrastructure work of housing society. Well aware and successful in cross cultural working environment strong project management and analytical skills.

General Manager (Construction)

Minimum B.Sc. Civil engineering with 15-20 years experience preferably in high-rise building, excellent relationship management skills. Possess leadership qualities, good communication skills and ability to manage people.

Project Management (Construction)

B.Sc. Civil engineering 10 -20 years of experience, strong communication, people management skills and strong, project management skills.

Construction Managers (Development)

DAE Civil with 10-12 years of experience or B-Tech with 5-8 years experience in development of large housing society.

Construction Managers (building)

DAE Civil with 10-12 years of experience or B-Tech with 5-8 years experience in construction of multi-story building

Senior QS / Contract Manager

DAE Civil with 10-12 years of experience, vast experience of preparation of IPCs, Bar bending schedule and sub-contractor bills, vast experience of estimating and costing of high cost projects, vast experience in contractual dispute resolution.

Chief Surveyor

DAE Civil with 10-12 years of experience, excellent command in using total station, conventional survey, digital survey instruction and GPS.

Design Engineering

B.Sc. Civil engineering with 5-8 years of experience, dedicated and enthusiastic professional, effective team player.

Structural Engineer

M.Sc. Structural Engineering with 10 years experience as structural engineer.

General Manager Services + Civil Matters

B.Sc. Civil engineering with 15-18 years of experience in construction industry, Ex-Army officers from engineering corps will be given preference, strong coordination and people management skills, excellent problem handling and solving skills.

Resident Engineer (QA/QC)

B.Sc. Civil engineering with 10-15 years of relevant experience, excellent analytical and technical skills.

Quantity Surveyor

DAE Civil with 5-8 years of experience strong analytical skills, good negotiator.

Site Supervisor

DAE Civil with 5-8 years of experience.

Site Inspector

DAE Civil with 5-8 years of experience, dedicated and result oriented good team player.


DAE Civil with 5-8 years of experience good working knowledge of latest total station and related tools.

Handsome salary and perks offered, desirous candidates may send their CV before 28, Feb, 2014 on the following addresses, only short listed candidates will be contacted.

Human Resource Department
Bahria Town (Pvt.) Ltd., Customer Support Center, Phase 8, Bahria Town, Rawalpindi.
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 051-5705801-10 Ext: 215
Fax: 051-5705856

Disasters are the means by which nature tests our abilities and skills to fight for our fate and to fight for our existence on this planet. To understand the construction techniques involved for a cheap and easy to construct post houses Punjab Youth Festival Pakistan now in 2014 has started an event with title "Post Disaster Houses Design Competition". The event is on Saturday March 1, 2014. 
Post Disaster Houses Competition in Punjab Youth Festival pakistan

Basic ideology behind is to take a step for the need of shelter at the disaster sites. This event is under the Punjab International IT, Science and Technology Exhibitions and Competitions which encourages the engineering and architecture students to step up and work for the rehabilitation of the needy. 

Students are asked to design disaster houses to accommodate a family of 4 to 5 people with electricity supply, proper sanitation and hygienic environment along with enough strength to withstand the aftereffects of the disaster for four weeks.

What winner will get?

The winners of this event will be given handsome cash prizes along with appreciation and recognition at National level.

 Judgment Criteria

The Official Judgment Criteria for the Project falls into following categories:
• Innovation
• Design Proposal
• Packed Size of the house
• Ease of Deployment
• Weather/Insect Protection/Ventilation
• Manufacturability
• Re-usability
• Material usage
• Final Presentation
So make sure your Design fulfills all the above mentioned aspects, if you wanna make your mark up to Top!

What you have to do?

All you have to do is make a miniature Model of your Design and present your idea through Presentation.

How to register?

You can participate as a Team...
A team can have minimum of 2 members and maximum of 5 members...

Register for Post Disaster House Competition

 Who can Register?

If you are a Civil Engineer, an Architect or an Architectural Engineer then this event is the right place where you can show your engineering and design skills for a Good Cause..

I feel for those who need us, who are disaster struck, do you? Are you willing to add to the efforts for their rehabilitation? Are you ready to give it all your engineering skills? Because an engineer is meant to construct and reconstruct. So, come and take part in Punjab Youth Festival’s Event “Post Disaster Houses’.
Post Disaster Houses is a residential design competition that will have real-world impact on the lives of families who have been struck by disaster. The goal of this competition is to solicit housing designs that are high quality, affordable, and build able.

Person Name: Sharmeen Qamar

Tel: 0332-6853137

Cantilever Retaining wall is a reinforced cement concrete (RCC) Structure that is used to retain and hold back loose soil and gravel behind where there are abrupt changes in slope beyond their natural and stable angle of repose.
Complete Design of Cantilever Retaining Wall

Design Criteria

As far as the stability of a retaining wall is concerned; it is of two types (i) external stability and (ii) Internal Stability

in external stability we try to make cantilever wall resist the overturning, sliding and settlement while in internal stability we try to make it resist the shear and bending moment. Usually in cantilever retaining wall only flexural and temperature or shrinkage reinforcement is provided and shear reinforcement is not provided as it would cause steel congestion, thus when there is requirement of shear reinforcement the area of concrete is increased.

In this post i will be sharing with you a pdf document containing the complete design example of a cantilever retaining wall.


The usual steps involved are as follows;

(i) Determination of preliminary dimensions of cantilever wall
(ii) checking external stability
(a) F.O.S against overturning
(b) F.O.S against soil pressure or settlement
(c) F.O.S against sliding and determining whether key is needed or not

(iii) Design of Heel Cantilever for shear and flexural
(iv) Design of Toe Slab for shear and flexural
(v) Reinforcement of Stem
(vi) Determining the cut length for reinforcement in stem by the help of graph
(vii) Checking the ACI conditions
(viii) Temperature and Shrinkage reinforcement
(ix) Final Presenting the results


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This design example is only for educational usage, the consequences of its usage for any commercial or educational work will be the responsibility of the user and is by no means responsible for it. 

From Editor's Desk

Its been a long time we havn't post any useful data, but this design example will surely break that break. I hope you would like it we need your feedback and your response. Share it with your friends as well. 

Drawings are used by architects and others for a number of purposes: to develop a design idea into a coherent proposal, to communicate ideas and concepts, to convince clients of the merits of a design, to enable a building contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed work, and to make a record of a building that already exists.
A Structural drawing, a type of technical drawing, shows information about foundations, roof, or other structural details.

A Civil Estimator is a construction professional who bids on civil projects that have gone to tender. Civil estimators typically have a background in civil engineering, construction project management, or construction supervision. Estimators are responsible for obtaining tenders, obtaining of material costs, calculation of tenders taking into consideration project management and overheads. The role of an estimator can be a very pressured one, and requires a great level of concentration, some of which will result in erratic office hours to ensure tender return dates can be achieved.


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Throughout the four years I have spent in an engineering college I have gone through various challenges and difficult situations where your survival sometimes look difficult for you and you think
“Now it’s the time to leave this world”. Don’t take engineering as easy as sciences or arts, although not any work in this world is easy but civil engineering by no means is easy.

Skills civil engineering students must have

Firstly entering in an engineering college itself is a challenge and if your are among those few lucky ones who have got this change – then be happy now fellow because you have got that potential and you have those solid nerves and patience that is needed ultimately.

Now let me state here the worlds of my heart. “Among the other entire tough engineering disciplines civil engineering is toughest and the most difficult one”; you might laugh at me once, but after you have grinded in the crusher for four years your heart will speak the same sentence. The truth of this sentence can also be observed after counting the number of female students you have with you in your class. :P

One of the very irritating thing you will observe in your starting years is people making statements like
“Civil is chill”
“They have nothing to do except staring at girls”
“They are the poor masons without instruments.”
“They are the only ones…always single……”
And bla bla.

Why you have to face these statements? Answer is simple it is because apparently it feels to others that civil engineering is very easy and one might say “Oh! Yeah! Those poor illiterate contractors can also build a house for me very easily, I dn’t need you!” but the only one standing alone within the fighting ring knows how those punches and kicks feel.
In this post I will be sharing with you the skills and abilities a civil engineering students must have so as to be a successful professional civil engineer for this world.

Patience and Control on Anger


Now you have already listened to those statements, results of those statements would only be anger in you; lets first know the reason why patience is needed, listening to teachers for continuous hours without break, listening to the statements of your parents and specially father, bearing the cold irritating behavior of your class fellows, seeing no beauty and colors in your life, and a lot more others. These all factors will make your brain hot, you will easily lose your temper, so you must have some patience and control over it otherwise the results will be problems, fights, more statements, and more anger.
So try to develop an ignoring attitude to what others say, always keeps a smile on your face, remain positive and let other do what they are doing and only thing you can change is yourself, develop yourself as a calm and cool engineer.



It is a basic need for being a successful human on this planet. Confidence will cover your inabilities and your weaknesses. It is like if we have a black ball with sun, we will not see it. So if you have confidence you will shine along with all of your weakness. Confidence is needed because you constantly have to give presentations, even in examinations you might have to give vivas; and it is like a short interview in which your instructor will judge and mark you on the basis of your confidence. Similarly to make new friends and to have a healthy communication with them you need confidence. Because it is a professional study where every one might have his/her own opinion and own designs you must have confidence on your abilities and skills to prove yourself right.
You can develop confidence by self-motivating yourself, set an aim and goal for yourself and when you will achieve it you will feel confident, participate in extra-curricular activities, sports and games it will boost up your confidence.

Physically Strong


It is the very important requirement and is needed because you in your education have to handle stones, aggregates, crush, heavy manual testing equipment, heavy machines, buckets and so on.
Similarly you have to stand while doing manual drawing for hours, and if on computer using structural and drawing softwares you need have that strong back-bone and strong mental skills to remain active and remain confident.

You in survey might have to handle equipment in rough and tough environment, might be too cold or 
might be too hot, but you have to handle, you must have strong immunity to fight with those extreme weathers and those extreme laboratory environment having smell of burning sulfurs, dusting cement, soil, blasting sounds of breaking steel bars and so much more.
You have to eat well, stay healthy, sleep as required, do exercise, take fruits and juices, protect yourself from unhealthy activities and drugs etc.

Absorb Pressure

It is already being explained why pressure is there, your family might not be that much strong 
economically they might be trusting you to get educated and earn a good livelihood for you and for them and thus they would be trusting you and they will have dozens of expectations for you. You at the other end are facing the odds and difficulties as a front war fighter.  You have to learn skills, softwares, remembers countless figures and countless points in your mind, thick chubby books of hundreds of pages and so on.

Thus you have stay calm, because if you take tension you might not be able to solve questions you will lose hope and will ultimately caught in that fear hole. Try to practice your religion and get those superficial powers in yourself and take help from that motivation.

Good Communication Skills

Civil engineering starts by communication, you in field have to satisfy your clients, you must have 
ability to say what your mind imagines and thinks, you have to constantly stay in touch with contractor and consultant and architects and thus you have to make your point and tell them what is feasible and what not.
In class you might not understand a thing and to ask a question from your instructor you will have to have that strong edge in communication skills, any one even not that much strong technically can excel if he/she has strong communication skills.
Try to talk as much as you can with your friends on facebook, on calls, in real life as well. You in start might have a fear calling a stranger like some service stations or some companies, you must have to overcome that fear to be successful.

Good Drawing skills 


Drawing is the language of engineers. You can’t communicate that much with words and writings as 
you can with drawings. You must have strong imagination as what a thing will look like in a different perspective view. You might have to draw elevations, sections and so much. You must be able to use manual drawing tools like T-Square, Set Square. Even if you use AutoCAD, you must have that skill because softwares just helps you they don’t have brain.

Try to sketch anything that interests you, you only need a paper and a pencil and a rubber to initiate creativity. Don’t hesitate that what others will say or how they comment. Just be confident and tell the world you have got skills. 

Strong in Mental Calculation

Calculation is what civil engineers mostly do after eating :P, as you might not have always a pocket calculator your brain must be that much fast in calculation that you might not need calculator very often.
You must be able to sum up or subtract or multiply or divide things on your finger tips. Because in calls your teacher might say “What is the dia of #4 bar” you will say ½” instantly but if you dn’t have that skill you will open up the calculator and say 4/8 = 1/2=0.5 and then say sir “0.5” and up to that time the class might be ended.

Must be rough and tough


That totally depends on what sort of field or major you select as your career, but if you hate extreme weathers, and harsh environments your chances for survival will be minimized.

Good Computer Skills


Because now a day’s computer has overcome all the calculations, manual drawing and manual structural calculations are now very rare and obsolete. Now engineers use ETABS, STAAD Pro and AutoCAD, and etc. etc. These all require from you a strong computer basic skills, you if have computer phobia that if will be difficult for you, you must start by just playing with it, do experiments, and see what happens. It will be a fun.

Good Convincing Skills

“No one is perfect” but if you have confidence you will say “NO ONE is perfect, and I am that NO ONE”. In civil engineering every field and every task has got variables that are obvious to have different answers for different humans. So you must have that convincing skills to tell others why you answer is more economical and more correct than others. Its like a marketing skills that are obviously required. Because you have to justify yourself.

Time Management


Time as we all know is money, you have to use it effectively and efficiently. Try to develop a schedule on daily basis follow it, set goals for each day and fight to achieve that goal.

Common Sense


“Civil engineering is an engineering of common sense”, this is the sentence that is being told by most of our teachers. Because in civil engineering whatever we build or whatever we develop it is physical, we don’t play with charges moving and we don’t see them. We play with bricks, aggregates, cement, sand, steel, you name it and we can touch that we can feel that and thus most laws and procedure are physical.
To understand and to imagine you must have a common sense. Like if you are a manager and you have to schedule a project activities, you must not set erecting walls before excavation and foundation design so there the common sense come.
But common sense is not very common :D

From Editor’s Desk


Civil engineering is a very interesting and very challenging field. But as it is rightly said, the more difficult the task is, the more beautiful the result will be. So don’t lose hope or don’t let yourself down, Your destiny is a few steps away.
I Hope you’d like the post, lets share it with your friends, there are many options available down there.

We know that soil or any other loose granular material has a safe angle of repose at which the soil or material can withstand without any requirement of confinement or support. But due to practical and property restrictions we in some cases need to cut or fill the soil at some unstable angle which if unsupported might cause failure of the slope.
Concrete Retaining Wall

If we provide stable slope rather than steep slope; we might need more space there and sometimes more economy is required; to cater this problem we use the retaining wall to support the material laterally after justifying its usage from economic considerations.
Thus we can define retaining wall;

What is Retaining Wall?

As a structure or a part of structure that holds back and retained the loose material behind within a limited space to provide safety and economy one at the same end.
McCormac and Nelson defines it as;
Retaining wall is a structure built for the purpose of holding back or retaining or providing one-sided lateral confinement of soil or other loose material.

Aurther H. Nilson and others define the retaining wall as;
Retaining walls are used to hold back masses of earth or other loose material where conditions make it impossible to let those masses assume their natural slopes.

Example Of Retaining Wall

Typical example of the retaining wall might be that of highways; in highways we have restricted property space called the right-of-way and within that limited space we have to provide the required width of the highway by using the cut and fill soil, and there those steep slopes come which needs retaining wall to get that support;

Types of Retaining Walls

Most commonly five types of retaining walls are used named as under;
(a)    Gravity Retaining wall
(b)    Cantilever Retaining Wall
(c)    Counter-fort Retaining wall
(d)    Buttress Retaining wall
(e)    Bridge-abutment type retaining wall

Gravity Retaining Wall;

The Gravity Retaining wall as the name suggests provide support or restraint to the loose material laterally because of its self-weight, it generally doesn’t contain reinforcement and mostly is used for 10 ft height and no more than that because more height will increase the need of more thicker cross-section and ultimately it will not be economical.
Gravity Type Retaining Wall

Cantilever Retaining Wall

Is a reinforced retaining wall that acts like a cantilever beam, it has four parts, the portion of the base slab or footing below the retained material is heel, and the other portion is toe, the vertical wall is called stem and to increase the slide friction key is provided below the base slab or footing.
The weight of the retained soil on the top of heel provides additional stability to the structure. It is mostly used for relatively greater heights upto 10 to 20 ft. 
Cantilever Type Retaining Wall

Counter-fort Retaining Wall

In Counter-fort retaining wall the stem and heel (the portion of the base slab below the retained slow) are joined together by inclined transverse walls at intervals called counterforts, Counterforts are in tension and mostly called counterfort ties. Counterfort retaining wall is mostly used for higher heights up to 25ft or more.
Counter Fort Retaining Wall

Buttress Retaining Wall

Buttress retaining wall is similar to counterfort retaining wall except that the inclined transverse walls are provided at the front of the stem called buttresses and acts like a compression member. Because of this property they are more stable and more economical, but because the buttresses are visible and occupies the space un-necessarily that might be useful if buttresses were not there; thus they are not generally used;
Buttress Retaining Wall

 Bridge Abutment Retaining Wall

It is a wall types bridge abutment, abutment and piers are the column-type structures used to support the deck of the bridge, the first and the last support of the bridge are called abutments because they retains the soil where as other supports are called piers. This type of retaining wall is just a simple cantilever retaining wall except that the bridge deck provides an additional horizontal restraint at the top of the stem. This wall is thus designed as a beam with fixed support at the bottom and simply supported or partially restrained at the top. 
Bridge Abutment Retaining Wall

From Editor’s Desk

Retaining Walls are very sensitive type of structures that protects our infrastructure like highways and roads from land-slides etc and helps us to let the roads be clear for us. In the retaining wall drain pipes are also provided along with pot-holes for reducing the amount of lateral load and to allow the wall to remain stable against overturning and sliding.
Hope you like this post, don’t forget to share it with your friends and colleagues.
Happy Civil Engineering!

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Saad Iqbal

{picture#} Hi there, I am Saad Iqbal from Pakistan - Founder of Iamcivilengineer. I am Currently Working in a Consultancy Firm as Junior Engineer and am a Passionate blogger and a Civil Engineer from UET Taxila, Pakistan. {facebook#} {twitter#} {google#} {pinterest#} {youtube#}


{picture#} Hi there, I am Saad Iqbal from Pakistan - Founder of Iamcivilengineer. I am Currently Working in a Consultancy Firm as Junior Engineer and am a Passionate blogger and a Civil Engineer from UET Taxila, Pakistan. {facebook#} {twitter#} {google#} {pinterest#} {youtube#}
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