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Working as a Civil Engineer at site is a challenging, demanding and exigent task. You might have been worked as a Design Engineer, Planning & Accusation engineer in a suited-booted environment with 9-to-5 working hours; but believe me your nerves and your mental / physical abilities might not be tested. 



Condition of Civil Engineers at site is like those of warriors who are fighting on front lines with the forces of nature; from one end you are bound to work under the streaks of heated sun and in other scene you are working within the stream of cold windy rivers with such a thrust that you are always doubted about your helmet to fly off. Imagine you are already standing in a weather temperature of 45 degree centigrade and you are bound to stand on asphalt of above 100 degree centigrade; so you look, life as a civil engineer is never easy at all!!!

Despite of all the difficulties, you are a human being with the right to live a happy professional routine life and that is only possible if you love your job and are always ready to accept challenges and are stand- up-and-be-recognized sort of behavior. 
In this post we would be dealing with some common mistakes which must be don’ts and to be avoided while working at site :- 

1. Don’t ever use Mobile Phone or  a Gadget Unnecessarily 

Aww!!! It’s difficult to avoid actually and if you are recently engaged or are in a long distant relationship and casually spend hours of texting and calling than it might be difficult in the start but it’s really dangerous.  After all you don’t want your loved one to live with someone else after your death! Sorry for my harsh words really but that is actually what could be the consequences of using a mobile phone at site. 

If you have to use your mobile phone in case of an emergency than rush for some shade or safe area; make a phone call, convey your message and then continue your work. It is also not recommended to use handsfree or Bluetooth device, as this will reduce your hearing efficiency which might drag you towards trouble while working in a region having abundant vehicular movement. 

2. Don’t Ever Walk on Formwork and Shuttering Boards

You know what, in my first project I was walking without safety shoes, but not barefooted at all haha!, during this awesome beach walk I was injected by a nail of a wooden formwork; reason behind walking on that board was actually there was mud and while saving my brand new shoes from getting dirty I finally get them punctured. 

So take some inspiration from me in reverse and never try to save your shoes from mud because if you want to play in mud and don’t want to get your hands dirty then it’s better to leave playing such dirty games !!!. 

Use of safety shoes is a must because it has metal base that protects you from projected sharp corners, nails etc and save your feet from getting wet and cold, but keep in mind that top beauty salons recommend to open up your feet to sky after wearing shoes for a long time. 

3. Don’t try to be a Tarzan or a King Kong !!!

You are a man not an animal, so if you think your abilities of jumping and hanging on the walls will inspire others than I think you are being adopted by some humans but surely you belong to somewhere else. 

If you are going to some spot at site and it does not have proper safe access than don’t indulge in danger although you might love Mr. Micheal Jackson’s Dangerous song but let me tell you this song is not for you. 
Never jump over some high elevated places or walking somewhere at some heights as it can disasters. 

4. Don’t go to site at night without High Visibility Safety Jacket

If you have to work during night times, as at any site the lighting arrangement is not always up to the mark so if you are crossing some vehicular passage without wearing any reflective safety jacket then you might be dragged into trouble and chances are that you might hit by some vehicle. 

5. Don’t Do anything Haphazardly 

I have faced this problem, every time you try to start some activity without proper planning or arrangements or in a hurry you will surely meet some unexpected outcome which will waste time, energy and resources. Chances are that you might lose your job or you will face the dirty words of your immediate boss. 

So before starting any activity make a proper plan and methodology; for this I have observed one practice that before starting any major activity contractor prepares a method statement / methodology and submit it to the consultant for approval. After proper approval the activity is started as per the submitted document. 

Read all the relevant documents / technical specification, drawings both shop and construction drawings. If you are working as a leader of the team than assign each small activities to an individual. 

6. Don’t take all decisions on your own 

You know what decision means responsibility, if you are taking any decision than you should first properly go through any possible consequences. If you have faced any technical problem at site then before solving any activity you should try to get approval from your construction manager or project manager or even CRE whoever is your immediate boss so as to share the responsibility with them.

We all know that it is different to design / plan something in a serene environment of office than implementing the same at ruthless working site. Therefore you are liable to face problems / difficulties and from time to time your engineered aptitude would be tested. 

7. Don’t skip your lunch or Food in the midway of your Working Shift

This is a very common mistake I have witnessed, committed by engineers working at site. Although the reasons are sometimes valid; like not have much time or not that great quality of luxurious food but after all you are expected to reach the fullest of your potential at site and that is only possible if you get proper fuel in terms of food and energy. Be well hydrated take plenty of water as working in hot environment will waste much of your water in the body.

If you think that quality of food available at site is not good then you can take your lunch food in lunch boxes while coming from home. If you live at site then you can take the same amount of food you cooked at night in the morning. 

8. Don’t ever go near heavy moving machinery or underneath them 

I have witnessed so many disasters due to neglecting the above titled DON’T, going near the radius for movement of heavy excavator, walking underneath the hooks of crane lifting different things; this is always to be avoided. 
You can never completely rely on the manmade machines; they can go wrong any time so it is better to avoid indulging in such tricks to inspire others. 

9. Don’t ever walk on site without seeing your path

I have witnessed many troubles due to this reason, in one of our project pilling work was underway, auger has bored one pile and was preparing to bore the other one in the meanwhile one of the labor walking by while looking somewhere else fell into the pile and was fortunately rescued after hours of hard work. 

So never ever try to be a batman because you can’t see everywhere while having just two eyes. 

I Know there are so many other Don’ts your mind might have, so buddy keep sharing them, instantly post them in comments and let us include it here for other enginers to get benefit from. 

The art of covering the surface of masonry work with a suitable material is called plastering. 

A fine paste of mortar made by mixing cement with sand or fat lime with sand or surkhi in addition to sufficient quantity of water if called plaster. 


When cement is used as a binding material, the plaster is called cement plaster and if lime is used as the binding material, it is called lime plaster. An ideal plaster should be smooth, non absorbent and washable. It should not be affected by weathering agencies.

The finished surface of walls constructed in bricks or stones are generally so coarse textured that they provide unsuitable finish for the internal walls of most of the buildings. These surfaces are rendered smooth by the application of one or two coats of plaster. The ceilings are also rendered smooth with plaster.

The object of external plastering is to cover the surface to enable it to resist the effect of weathering agencies. However, a good brick work made of sound, well burnt bricks or neat stone masonry constructed of durable stones does not require external plastering.

The object of internal plastering is to provide a smooth surface in which dust and dirt cannot lodge and to form a smooth surface for applying white or color wash, distemper or paint.

TYPES OF PLASTERING

1. CEMENT PLASTERING

The mix ratio of mortar in case of cement plastering depends upon the nature of the work to be plastered. 
For rich plastering work at sensitive places (e.g. in side bathrooms, W.C. etc.), 1:3 cement plaster mix is used. For general plastering of walls 1:5 to 1:8 cement plaster mixes are used.

Preparing the surface

Before applying the plaster, the surface should be prepared properly. The joint of masonry are properly raked to a depth of 10 to 15 mm to provide key to plaster. The surface is then thoroughly wetted with water, washed well and kept wet for six hours. When the surface is ready, plaster is applied.

Applying the plaster 

Cement plastering may be applied in one or two coats.In case of plastering of single coat, the mortar is dashed against the prepared surface into a uniform thickness with the help of trowel.Wooden screeds 7.5 cm wide and of required thickness of the plasters are generally fixed vertically 2.4 to 3 m apart to act as gauges guides in order to keep the plaster to the required thickness. Careful plumbing should be done in fixing of these screeds.

Surplus mortar is removed with the help of mason’s straight edge and then the mortar is pressed well with a wooden float so that mortar may fill in the joints of the masonry. The surface is then finally polished with a trowel or iron float. The thickness of this coat should not be more than 16 mm.
In case plastering is to be done in two coats the first coat is applied as described above with the only difference that it is not polished. Before applying the second coat, the first coat is allowed to set but it would not become dry and it is also roughened with a scratching tool to provide key to the second coat. 

The second coat is then applied in a thin layer not exceeding 3 mm in thickness within 48 hours. It is then well trowelled and rubbed perfectly smooth with the help of a steel float. It is then allowed to set for 2 days and cured for more than 7 days.

Suitability

 This type of plastering forms an ideal coating for external finishings. It is also used for internal renderings of common as well as important buildings. It is specially suited for damp conditions i.e. bathrooms, etc.

2. LIME PLASTERING

The proportioning of the ingredients of a lime plaster is adopted according to the number of coats to be applied. If the plaster is to be applied in one coat, 1 part of lime to 1.5 parts of sand is used. If two coats are to be applied, the proportion for the first coat is same as above while the second coat consists of two parts of lime and one part of sand.

If three coats are to be applied, the proportion of the third coat consists of 4 parts of lime to one part of sand.In actual practice, all the coats consist of 1 part of lime to 2 part of sand. Thickness of the lime plaster varies from 15mm to 20mm. 

Preparing the surface 

The method of preparing the surface is same as described in case of cement plastering.

Application of first coat

It is applied by dashing the lime plaster with the help of trowel against the wall surface between the screeds. Plaster is pressed well in the joints. Function of this coat is to fill all the irregularities of the surface. Average thickness of this coat is 10 to 12 mm. It is then left to dry for 3 to 4 days.
Application of second coat
Before applying this coat, the first coat is well washed and scratched over with the edge of a trowel. The second coat is then pressed against the wall with mason’s trowel and rubbed with a straight edge. Thickness of this coat is 6 to 10 mm.
Application of final and finishing coat 
This coat usually consists of  fat lime which is called lime putty. It is applied on the second coat, made perfectly plain and then rubbed first with wooden float and then with a steel float to polish the surface, It is about 3 to 6 mm in thickness. It is allowed to dry for two days and then the surface is cured for 7 to 10 days.

Suitability 

This type of plastering is suitable for internal renderings of buildings. But it is not commonly adopted these days.

3. MUD PLASTERING

The wall surface is first prepared as described in case of cement plastering. The mud plaster is then evenly dashed against the wall surface with a wooden float. After 24 hours, the surface is tamped. The function of tamping is to compact the layer and to drive it deep into the joints. It also helps to avoid developments of cracks due to hollows.

After tamping, water is sprinkled slightly and the surface is polished with a steel trowel. A thin wash of cow dung is then given and tamping is done again at the places where small cracks have formed. Finally the surface is given a wash of fine white earth and cow-dung. Sometimes, surface is given a wash of fine earth, cow dung and cement in proportion of 3 : 2 : 1.

Suitability

This type of plastering is done on walls of temporary sheds and country side buildings.

4. STUCCO PLASTERING

This is special type of plaster.Stucco is the name given to a decorative type of plaster which provides an excellent finish like that with marble lining. After preparing the surface, stucco plastering is applied in three coats. Each coat should be permitted to dry thoroughly before applying the next coat.
For internal surface, the first coat also known as scratch coat consists of lime plaster 12 mm in thickness.The second coat or brown coat consists of rich lime plastering in 10 mm thickness. The final coat or finishing coat consists of a mixture of very fine lime and white ground stone ( marble or quartz), 3 mm in thickness. It is carefully polished with a bag of linen containing moist chalk in the first instance and then chalk and oil. The surface is then finally finished by rubbing it with only oil as to make it smooth and bright.

For external surfaces, the first and second coats are 10 to12 mm thick and the finishing coat is 3 to 6 mm thick. The proportion of ingredients for the first two coats is 1 part of cement to 3 parts of sand with 10% by weight of hydrated lime. The finishing coat consists of 1 part of cement and 2 pars of sand in which some coloring pigment is added or colored cement is used.
Method of applying this plaster is same as described in case of cement or lime plastering.

Suitability

This type of plastering is suitable for external as well as internal surfaces of buildings to provide an excellent finish.

5. MOUGHAL PLASTERING

It is generally applied in two coats of lime mortar by mixing lime, sand and surkhi in the ratio of 4:3:1 along with glue and powdered gull nut. The surface is well wetted and the second coat of about 1.25 mm thickness is applied when the first coat is hardened. The finished plastered surface is kept wet for 3 weeks.

 Suitability

This type of plastering is suitable for internal surfaces of high class buildings but it is not commonly applied these days.

The placing of a building with respect to the geographical directions, the direction of the wind, and the path of the sun, is known as the "Orientation of buildings".



The building should be placed in such a way that it derives maximum benefit from sun, air, rain, and nature and at the same time, it is protected from their harmful effects.
The orientation also includes the arrangement of rooms of a building, so as to provide natural comforts to the residents. 
Orientation requires first priority after selection of site, for proper planning and design of a building.

(1) SURROUNDING OF THE SITE
The building is to be orientated to suit the surroundings of the site.
(2) PROXIMITY OF A ROAD OR STREET
The building should be so orientated, as to provide easy approach from the nearby road or street.
(3) THE SUN
The sun is a source of natural light and temperature. 
Sunlight is a powerful agent for killing the germs of harmful diseases like, tuberculosis, typhoid, cholera, etc., which may, otherwise, breed in the dark and damp corners of a building. 
It is, therefore, essential to orientate the building such that the sun rays may fall sufficiently on the building and enters the building through doors and windows. However in summer, the building should also be protected from its severe heat.


(4) WIND
The building should be so orientated that cool breeze enters the bedrooms during night in summer but not in winter. 
It should also prevent direct entry of wind of heavy intensity into the building, so as to protect the residents from dust nuisance.
(5) RAIN
The building should be so orientated, so as to prevent entry of rain inside the rooms. 
It should also provide minimum portion of the building subjected to direct showers of rain, so as to prevent dampness inside the building.
Orientation of Building in Different Regions
The climatic conditions, intensity of sun and direction of wind differ from region to region. It is, therefore, not possible to follow a rigid method, with regard to the orientation of buildings.
In general the Earth's surface is divided into three different regions with respect to the orientation of buildings. In these regions, the orientation is discussed separately
In Hot and Arid Regions 
In these regions, the climate is extreme; the temperature ranges from 50 C0 maximum to 36 C0 minimum, or, more or less. 
Cloudless sky, low humidity, and high incidence of Sun's glare are the main features. 
The sunny areas are hot and dry in the day time and cool to cold at night. 
As far as possible, the building should be protected from day time heat and glare during summer and at the same time, the rate of heat loss at night during winter should be reduced. 
In these regions the building should be oriented for the Sun, not for wind as in humid regions.
The following points should be kept in mind while orientating building in such areas:
To minimize the heat gain during summer and take benefit for solar heat during winter, the longer walls should face north and south and shorter walls, east and west, so the least wall area is exposed to the slanting rays of Sun during fore noon and afternoon. 
In other words, we can say that the longer axis of building should run east west, so as to avoid excessive heat from west side.
Provision of projections on the southern walls will give sufficient shade to the walls during summer and provision of windows and openings on the southern wall will allow sunrays to enter into rooms during winter, because the Sun's altitude is high in summers and low in winters.
Verandahs are desired on the south for protection from heat in summers and, also, for sitting out purposes in winter to enjoy the Sun's heat.
Openings in the west should be small and should be properly orientated. ( To save cost of verandah on the west, the afternoon's Sun may be kept off by providing Louvers, which are ventilators, sometimes provided in windows also, in which horizontal sloping slats allow ventilation but exclude rain and Sun's rays.)
A small tilt in the axis of the building must be given away from the west towards the south (facing near about north-west), to get maximum benefit of breeze during rainy season, autumn, and spring to ensure comfort and proper ventilation.
Hot and Humid Regions 
In this region the climate is humid, temperature in summer is moderately high and rainfall is heavy. 
The prime object for orientation and design of buildings in this region is to provide free air movement through the building and to prevent the temperature rise of its inside surface above the shade temperature.
The following aspects should be considered while designing buildings in these areas:
The building should face the direction of the prevailing wind to obtain maximum benefit of the air movement. 
A tilt, up to 45 degree may be allowed, if required, for which the loss of efficiency is only up to 20%.
Window sills should be low to ensure maximum ventilation at the normal living level.
Walls should be shaded from the sun, so as to prevent the temperature rise.
Protection of openings against rain is also necessary.
Building should normally have open planning, as far as possible. They should be of one room thickness, so as to ensure thorough ventilation.
Hilly Regions 
In these regions, temperature is usually much low and cold dominates according to the increasing altitude. 
There is marked drop in the temperature during night.
The following points should be kept in mind while orientating building in such areas:
(1) The buildings should be located in the southern slope of the hill, as they receive maximum sunshine for the greatest duration of time.
(2) The opening should be placed as to allow sunshine inside the building.
(3) A massive structure with high heat capacity is useful because the heat, it stores during the day is welcome, except in very hot day.
(4) It is necessary to provide ceilings of good thermal insulation to reduce loss of heat by radiation during night.
(5) In areas, with heavy snowfall, the roof should be kept sloping to prevent accumulation of snow.

Bahria Town (Pvt) Ltd, a vibrant and dynamic leader in the construction industry requires the services of following staff for different project based in Karachi; 



1. Senior Manager Infrastructure 
2. (BSC/ MSc) Civil Engineering 
3. Minimum 15 years of experience of developing infrastructures works of housing society. Well familiar with earth work. Well aware and successful in cross cultural working environment strong project people and analytical skills

1. Project Manager Infrastructure
2. (BSC/ MSc) Civil Engineering 
3. Minimum 10-12 years of experience of developing infrastructures works of housing society. Well familiar with earth work. Well aware and successful in cross cultural working environment strong project people and analytical skills

4. Construction Manager Infrastructure
5. DAE / B-Tech Civil
6. Minimum 10-12 years of experience of development of large societies should be able to handle earth moving equipment

Only candidates with required relevant experience may send their updated CV with recent passport sized photograph before 03 April, 2017 to 
Human Resource Department, 
Bahria Town (Pvt) Ltd, Customer Support Center,
Phase-VIII Bahria Town Rawalpindi 

Email: hrd@bahriatown.com.pk

 


Applications are invited from the Punjab Domiciled Pakistanis for the following posts for UET Lahore and its Campuses on contract basis: 



1. Name of Post: Director Planning & Development 
2. Qualification & Experience: Ph.D with 5 years experience in field of Planning and Development or M.Sc in civil engineering with 10 years experience in field of planning and development 
3. Position of posting: Lahore 

1. Name of Post: Project Director (Civil) 
2. Qualification & Experience: B.Sc. Civil Engineering from a recognized university or equivalent qualification with 13 years experience in civil works
3. Position of posting: KSK

1. Name of Post: Executive Engineer (Civil) 
2. Qualification & Experience: B.Sc. in civil engineering from a recognized university with 7 years of professional experience 
3. Position: LHR / FSD / RCET

1. Name of Post: Assistant Engineer (Civil) 
2. Qualification & Experience: B.Sc. Civil Engineering 
3. Position: LHR / FSD / RCET

Visit the website jobs.uet.edu.pk, fill online form, upload photograph, print application and attach relevant document, attach band draft/challan of Rs. 300 in favor of Treasurer of UET
Last Date to apply: 05-04-2017

In translation of the Chief Minister’s vision to provide our youth with healthy, modern and high potential sports opportunities, the Punjab Sports Board is in the process of team acquisition which shall become part of the Project Management Unit (PMU, specially constituted for on-ground timely delivery of envisaged facilities i.e. Cricket, Football and Hockey Stadium throughout Punjab. Applications are hence, invited from the dynamic, motivated and self-driven individuals who are willing to carry out extensive field work and put in long hours of work with full dedication against following position:-



1. Name of Position: Sub-Engineer 
2. No. of Positions :03
3. Place of posting: Lahore, Rawalpindi, Multan
4. Qualification: DAE (Civil) having minimum 10 years experience in building construction 
5. Max Age Limit: 35 years
6. Salary (L.S): Rs. 75,000/-
7. Nature of Post: 03 years contract

Application typed on Plain Paper along with CV, domicile certificate, experience certificate, 3 recent passport size photographs and copies of educational testimonials (duly tested / verified) should reach the office of Director General sports, Punjab, National Hockey Stadium, Nishtar Park Sports Complex, Ferozpur road, Lahore
8. Last Date to apply: 04-04-2017

The placing of a building with respect to the geographical directions, the direction of the wind, and the path of the sun, is known as the "Orientation of buildings".


The building should be placed in such a way that it derives maximum benefit from sun, air, rain, and nature and at the same time, it is protected from their harmful effects.
The orientation also includes the arrangement of rooms of a building, so as to provide natural comforts to the residents. 
Orientation requires first priority after selection of site, for proper planning and design of a building.




(1) SURROUNDING OF THE SITE
The building is to be orientated to suit the surroundings of the site.
(2) PROXIMITY OF A ROAD OR STREET
The building should be so orientated, as to provide easy approach from the nearby road or street.
(3) THE SUN
The sun is a source of natural light and temperature. 
Sunlight is a powerful agent for killing the germs of harmful diseases like, tuberculosis, typhoid, cholera, etc., which may, otherwise, breed in the dark and damp corners of a building. 
It is, therefore, essential to orientate the building such that the sun rays may fall sufficiently on the building and enters the building through doors and windows. However in summer, the building should also be protected from its severe heat.


(4) WIND
The building should be so orientated that cool breeze enters the bedrooms during night in summer but not in winter. 
It should also prevent direct entry of wind of heavy intensity into the building, so as to protect the residents from dust nuisance.
(5) RAIN
The building should be so orientated, so as to prevent entry of rain inside the rooms. 
It should also provide minimum portion of the building subjected to direct showers of rain, so as to prevent dampness inside the building.
Orientation of Building in Different Regions
The climatic conditions, intensity of sun and direction of wind differ from region to region. It is, therefore, not possible to follow a rigid method, with regard to the orientation of buildings.
In general the Earth's surface is divided into three different regions with respect to the orientation of buildings. In these regions, the orientation is discussed separately
In Hot and Arid Regions 
In these regions, the climate is extreme; the temperature ranges from 50 C0 maximum to 36 C0 minimum, or, more or less. 
Cloudless sky, low humidity, and high incidence of Sun's glare are the main features. 
The sunny areas are hot and dry in the day time and cool to cold at night. 
As far as possible, the building should be protected from day time heat and glare during summer and at the same time, the rate of heat loss at night during winter should be reduced. 
In these regions the building should be oriented for the Sun, not for wind as in humid regions.
The following points should be kept in mind while orientating building in such areas:
To minimize the heat gain during summer and take benefit for solar heat during winter, the longer walls should face north and south and shorter walls, east and west, so the least wall area is exposed to the slanting rays of Sun during fore noon and afternoon. 
In other words, we can say that the longer axis of building should run east west, so as to avoid excessive heat from west side.
Provision of projections on the southern walls will give sufficient shade to the walls during summer and provision of windows and openings on the southern wall will allow sunrays to enter into rooms during winter, because the Sun's altitude is high in summers and low in winters.
Verandahs are desired on the south for protection from heat in summers and, also, for sitting out purposes in winter to enjoy the Sun's heat.
Openings in the west should be small and should be properly orientated. ( To save cost of verandah on the west, the afternoon's Sun may be kept off by providing Louvers, which are ventilators, sometimes provided in windows also, in which horizontal sloping slats allow ventilation but exclude rain and Sun's rays.)
A small tilt in the axis of the building must be given away from the west towards the south (facing near about north-west), to get maximum benefit of breeze during rainy season, autumn, and spring to ensure comfort and proper ventilation.
Hot and Humid Regions 
In this region the climate is humid, temperature in summer is moderately high and rainfall is heavy. 
The prime object for orientation and design of buildings in this region is to provide free air movement through the building and to prevent the temperature rise of its inside surface above the shade temperature.
The following aspects should be considered while designing buildings in these areas:
The building should face the direction of the prevailing wind to obtain maximum benefit of the air movement. 
A tilt, up to 45 degree may be allowed, if required, for which the loss of efficiency is only up to 20%.
Window sills should be low to ensure maximum ventilation at the normal living level.
Walls should be shaded from the sun, so as to prevent the temperature rise.
Protection of openings against rain is also necessary.
Building should normally have open planning, as far as possible. They should be of one room thickness, so as to ensure thorough ventilation.
Hilly Regions 
In these regions, temperature is usually much low and cold dominates according to the increasing altitude. 
There is marked drop in the temperature during night.
The following points should be kept in mind while orientating building in such areas:
(1) The buildings should be located in the southern slope of the hill, as they receive maximum sunshine for the greatest duration of time.
(2) The opening should be placed as to allow sunshine inside the building.
(3) A massive structure with high heat capacity is useful because the heat, it stores during the day is welcome, except in very hot day.
(4) It is necessary to provide ceilings of good thermal insulation to reduce loss of heat by radiation during night.
(5) In areas, with heavy snowfall, the roof should be kept sloping to prevent accumulation of snow.


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