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Beam as we all know is a 2d structural element of a structure either a frame structure or a beam supported structure. The basic purpose of providing a beam is to transfer the imposed load both dead and live to a wall or column whatever is designed on the basis of structural requirement of a building. Beams are meant to resist bending or flexural stresses as a major one with shear stresses as minor ones. The reason for providing a beam in a building is to span a gap or to have some space or opening like that of a door or a window.

Before understanding what plinth beam is; one must know what plinth level is? 

Plinth level is basically the level of the ground floor top which is usually kept higher than the ground level. By ground level we mean the natural surface level while the ground floor level is the surface finish level of the inner part of the building.

The reason to make plinth level a bit higher than the ground level is to prevent the rain or other runoff water from coming inside the building and on the other hand provide sufficient drainage to the surface water of the building.

The extent of level is decided keeping in the view the future trends in the locality like raising of the road level etc. 

Now you know what plinth level is; as for the plinth beam, in simple words, it is the beam at the plinth level. Plinth beam in a frame structure is meant to join all the columns thereby reducing the effective length and thus reducing the slenderness of the columns. Plinth beams are usually used in case the foundations are bit deeper and thus they act like a bracing or tying element. One more reason to provide plinth beam is to avoid differential settlement in a building this is due to the reason that all the load of the wall is than carried by the plinth beam underneath.

In a skeletal system which is the other name of a framed structure; plinth beam is the first beam to be constructed after foundation. As the finish floor level of the ground floor is a kept higher than the ground level; the empty gap and void is filled with a compacted soil so as to achieve a stable surface for the floor to be constructed.

The plinth beam is usually expected to be strong enough to carry the superimposing brick wall as well tying the columns and the structure.

Keeping in view the structural requirement of a building; plinth beam can either be reinforced or non-reinforced.

However, usually these days plinth beam is reinforced which is also recommended as per the seismic codes of certain countries.

Tie Beam and its Difference from Plinth Beam

As for the tie beam; you will be amazed to read that plinth beam is actually called a tie beam. Actually the word tie beam is a broader term; one type of tie beam is a plinth beam.

Tie beam in structural engineering is like a primary beam which connects two columns at any height above the floor level. Tie beams are meant to act as a length breaker for the columns to reduce their effective length and reducing slenderness ratio in case the roof height is bit more.

Tie beams are also different from primary and secondary beam. Primary and secondary beam in a frame structure carries the load of a floor, whereas tie beam does not take the load of any floor and only takes the load of wall. 

A tie beam is usually recommended for a column when its height is more than 4 to 5 meters. However, the designer must keep in check the bending length of the column to make them non slender.

Have you ever thought why the foot-rest is provided in a chair? It is actually meant to tie the four legs of the chair so as to reduce the opening or the dispatching force within the legs of the chair.
I hope you are now able to answer what is the difference between plinth beam and a tie beam along with some bonus questions like what is plinth level; what are primary beams; what are secondary beams. You have also understood why the plinth beam is provided and why the tie beam is provided. What is the effect of the tie beam on the columns or what is the effect of the plinth beam on the columns.

While reading about the plinth beam does not get confused about the lintel beam also; lintel beam is meant to have a clear space for the window to be constructed or for the opening of a door. 

What next? 

If you think I have missed anything related to what is the difference between plinth beam and a tie beam than do comment it below so that we can have a healthy discussion about such an important question about structures.

Project Directorate North which is a division of National Logistics Cell Rawalpindi required competent and self-motivated Civil Engineers both BSc. And DAE diploma holders for the asphalt plant located in Rawalpindi. It is a city based job in a Semi-government organization which is National logistic Cell NLC. It is located at Sowan Camp Rawalpindi. 

The detailed job openings at National Logistic Cell is as under :-

  • Asphalt Manager
  • Quantity Surveyor
  • Material Engineer
  • Asphalt Plant Operator
  • Paver Operator

The detailed description of the job openings at National Logistic Cell is as under :-

Asphalt Manager

2.       No. of Posts :02
3.       Qualification / Experience: B.Sc. (Civil Engineer) Must be having experience of 15 years or more in Plant and Equipment operations. Candidate must be having 10 years or more experience at managerial positions. Retired Army Lieutenant Colonel / Major having relevant experience will be preferred.

Quantity Surveyor

2.       No. of Posts : 02
3.       Qualification /Experience: DAE must have experience in infrastructure projects including highways and bridges with 8 years’ experience. Must be having experience of preparation of IPCs and BOQ along with their checking. Must have experience working with NESPAK and C&W.

Material Engineer

2.       No. of Post: 01
3.       Qualification / Experience : B.Sc. (Civil) Engineer or equivalent having 3 years’ experience.
Walk in interview information


Interview will be at HQ PD North, National Logistic Cell, Sowan Camp Rawalpindi
Last Date: 25 May, 2017 at 09:30 hrs

Must bring CVs, documents, experience certificates, CNIC attested copies and 2 passport size pictures. Max age limit is 65 years.  

You know what, today when I rummage around “Google Play Store” for APPs on construction industry I got countless results with millions of thousands downloads that made me stunned and I, although is a firm believer that technology has had a unyielding and a rock-solid brunt on our lives, was literally amazed about it. That’s why I went out to investigate and explore what technology has done and made our construction industry from mere concrete and steel towards an enormous, gigantic and colossal example of technological advancement

Giza Pyramid Complex in EGYPT
Giza Pyramid Complex in EGYPT

So in the next few paragraphs, you will be amazed by getting informed about some of the latest, hottest and the most modern technologies; whether it is in the machinery, equipment, gadgets, tools or whatsoever. 

Like being a reality construction industry and civil engineering existed in one form or another way back with those of human beings and their history. Though it may have been primitive, there were many different projects being put up and erected from shrines and antique, primordial and ancient colossal  structures, right on up to luxury homes with 4-car garages and tens of square feet of swimming pools. 

While looking into history, we found that the ancient Romans were the originators to try out with concrete, mixing lime and volcanic rock to build regal and royal structures like “Pantheon in Rome”, still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world. 

“Pantheon in Rome”
“Pantheon in Rome”

Now from having an eye on history and seeing our selves standing way ahead of them a question comes to our mind; What does the future hold for construction and technology?  Will there come a day when noisy and earsplitting construction crews are replaced by swarms of automaton nanobots? 
The reason for, why modern technologies have found a line of attack towards Construction industry?, exists in a hard truth, which is. Construction projects are complicated, time-consuming & resource intensive projects.

Construction Industry, nowadays is in a realm and dominion of technology, automation, computerization and mechanization. From managing every facet and aspect of a project using smartphone Digital Blueprint applications to Mapping, surveying and Monitoring the project execution at the job site with Aerial Drones; we are everywhere experiencing a hi-tech explosion in our beloved construction industry.

This steady onslaught of technological wizardry has revolutionized how the project managers take control on the budges expenses, take control of the risk factors, monitor the safety and environment of the project, crashing the activities for on-time completion, allocating and employing resources in an efficient, well-organized and professional manner. 

Construction manager Office Without File Rack ! Thanks to Blueprint Applications

When I was, in my life, first time at site; I was given the task to manage drawings of the projects; keep tracking of the changes from previous revisions and then to distribute the drawings to the concerned individuals along with updating the log and a master file; which was as bulky as my weight, lolz. 

Thanks to Blueprint Applications
Thanks to Blueprint Applications

Gone are these days of having bulky registers and site offices overflowing with documents, correspondences and records – Now you only need an application-ridden tablet or a phone having softwares like Rollout, Procore, Aconex etc; thanks to the sheet management, Intelligent Markups and Social Collaboration of these applications you have the bulky drawings in your light weight champion you can call heavy-weight champion. 

With the Blueprint Apps like PlanGrid, FieldWire, SmartDraw, Floor Plan, Defectradar and countless others; you can easily share plans, markup photos and reports with the entire project team as and when it matters. You can track revisions, document progress, and manage issues in the field while keeping everyone on the current set. 

PlanGrid, FieldWire, SmartDraw
PlanGrid, FieldWire, SmartDraw

Possible obstacles can be accounted for and tweaked before beginning physical work and then having to change them (usually at great cost) due to an oversight. These apps allow for direct communication, in real time, between the owner, project managers, and other staff, so everyone is kept in the loop, 24 hours a day.

Drones – Let them take the heat of Sun for you while sitting on your Air Conditioned Chair 

Way back years ago when I was working on a highway project of an interchange; I was amazed to look the project progress by matching the new Google Maps picture with that of the old one before the start of project and thought how amazing it would be if somehow everyday Google Map can update the picture; thanks to the Drone Technology the next big technological boom of the era. 

Drone Technology the next big technological boom of the era.
Drone Technology the next big technological boom of the era. 

The Drone Aerial Intelligence system helps construction companies to capture progress and conduct site surveys on the job site. These drones can generate high-resolution aerial images along with topographic maps, 2D and 3D models, and accurate volumetric data. 
With these drones you can get immediate reliable data for project estimation moreover civil survey designs and construction stakeouts make it a golden sparrow of any construction project.  If you are a project manager than 90% of your work can be done by a drone by providing most up to date reporting, tracking resources and optimizing your budget and time.  

These drones can work on all sorts of projects whether you are building a dam or rebuilding your home or even remodeling it. From scoping out the big picture above to drastically improving safety and efficiency in your business, drones are a great way to make sure that your construction projects is the best it can be. 

improving safety and efficiency in your business,
improving safety and efficiency in your business,

You can use drones to quickly survey your job site and build maps. Instead of using human resources, heavy machinery & expensive surveying tools, that produce complex data, you can get the job done in half the time & money with greater accuracy. 

The data from drone is then used in a process called GIS mapping, which creates a digital map through a mix of statistical analysis and cartography. These maps have a very high definition and allow for the viewing of very specific information about an area that’s easy for the manager to access. 

DSMs or “Digital Surface Models” show the dark blue areas that need most focus on them. Like areas where the dike sometimes need to drain. Companies like Kespry, Brassfield and Gorrie claim to have technologies that provide fulfillment for a project and construction manager; 

GPS in construction Industry - How Satellites have Helped you? !!!

GPS is a short acronym of Global Positioning System. It is a network of orbiting satellites that send precise details of their position in space back to earth. The signals are obtained by GPS receivers, such as navigation devices and are used to calculate the exact position, speed and time at the vehicles locations. 

After its first launch in 1988 it has revolutionized the navigation as well as the survey work of the construction industry. GPS can be used for many tasks in construction surveying such as measuring the grading, elevation, staking, mapping and site exploration. Construction surveying is a process that collects data, which helps in planning a perfect construction project without any possibility of construction flaws. Now you don’t have to opt the traditional electro-optical-mechanical devices to survey the area like measuring tapes, compasses, levels and similar devices. 

GPS surveying instrument receives signals from GPS satellites
GPS surveying instrument receives signals from GPS satellites

GPS surveying instruments offer measurements in 3d (X, Y and Z) planes that make it easy for the surveyor to take precise measurements for any point of the area. The GPS surveying instrument receives signals from GPS satellites in terms of longitude, latitude and elevation (from sea level) along with some other information that helps the GPS surveying instrument display exact measurement. 

GPS have transfigure and modernize the traditional hectic survey work. You can now do survey in just 5 mins; you have the freedom to work in any weather and in any place. Companies like Leica geosystems have equipments that can perform Topographical tasks, Hemisphere GPS, Geological mapping. 

Computer Aided Design (CAD) – the Evergreen Modernization in the Construction Industry

CAD has enabled construction to begin before the design is fully complete, allowing for
fast-track construction and reduced interferences . It improves procurement and performance systems, allowing a host of possible issues to be tackled before physical work begins, significantly reducing the risk of errors and thus reducing the risk of going off-budget or off-schedule.

CAD has resulted in several major changes in construction technology, such as the move toward engineering workstations that are dedicated to the CAD process. CAD systems can store large numbers of civil, structural, and electrical schematics. Furthermore, compatible solutions to integrate into CAD software have emerged and continue to be updated.

3d printers and construction industry 

This innovation is a recent modernism that has taken the construction industry with a gigantic hammer surprise; while printing our CV with a HP LaserJet one can’t ever have imagined that one day a 3D printer might be printing the house we would be living in. 3D printing is changing the construction industry before our eyes. Inventor of 3d printed house was Ma Yihe, in Shanghai, China, 2014 before that nobody could have envisaged that one day we could really print a house when 3d printing was in its infancy. 

Apis Cor Constructed this house with Drone Technology in 24 hours
Apis Cor Constructed this house with Drone Technology in 24 hours

3d printing will dramatically reduce the cost of housing, and increase the speed of construction. 3D printing – driven innovation in construction will empower people by creating more disposable income for homeowners and generally improve the quality of life. 

Most well known 3d printing construction firm is WinSun Global, based in China. They first revealed their plans to build 3d printed houses in 2014. The company uses a 22-foot tall industrial 3d printer to create houses in under 24 hours. The first construction was models, apartment-sized spaces building by combining separate rooms. Since than winsun has branched out to take on much bigger project. Other companies include Qingdao Unique, Shanska, a uk contracting company, WASP, MX3d and Apis Cor. From all the parts of the world humans are now witnessing 3d printed houses, apartments, plazas and even bridges. 

3d printed soil – Future replacement of Construction Material

At the institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia (IAAC), S. Giannakopoulos has designed a printer that can utilize the natural soil along with few additives and print a soil that can be used a building material with tensile strength 3 times more than industrial clay. 
Soil can be recycled an indefinite number of times over an extremely long period. While keeping the availability of the soil everywhere this might be in future prove to be life saving technology for the deprived people of the backward areas not having much economic power to develop concrete and other construction materials. 

Transparent Aluminum - The future for the Clear Crystal Glass

For decades, chemical engineers have dreamed of a material that combines the strength and durability of metal with the crystal-clear purity of glass. Such a “Clear metal” could be used to construct towering glass-walled skyscrapers that require less integral support. 
Secure military building could install thin transparent metal windows impervious to highest caliber artillery fire. Aluminum power is placed under immense pressure, heated for days at 2000 degree and finally polished to produce a perfectly clear, glass like material with strength of aluminum called alon.  

Transparent |Aluminum - The Future of Glass Industry
Transparent |Aluminum - The Future of Glass Industry

This innovative Aluminum has already being used by many Military departments for making secure buildings and secret hideouts. 

Self – Draining Roads – permeable concrete – a New Innovation

Pervious concrete pavement is a unique and effective means to address important environmental issues and support green, sustainable growth. By Capturing storm water and allowing it to seep into the ground, porous concrete is instrumental in recharging groundwater, reducing storm water runoff. 
In pervious-concrete, carefully controlled amounts of water and cementations materials are used to create a paste that forms a thick coating around aggregate particles. A pervious concrete mixture contains a little or no sand, creating a substantial void content. Using sufficient past to coat and bind the aggregate particles together creates a system of high permeable, interconnected voids that drains quickly. 

While pervious concrete can be used for a surprising number of applications, its primary use is in pavement. 

Self charging roads – Highways having LIFE!!! 

Britain Government is getting ready to test out the first ever road technology that would allow the hybrid and electric cars to get recharged without having frequent stops.  Most electric cars get charged via plug-in chargers at home or while parked on the streets. 
These new charging roads work on the principle of magnetic induction technology that would allow them to get charged wirelessly.  Cables buried underneath the highway would generate electromagnetic fields that could be picked up by a receiver in the car and transformed into electric power. 

Self Charging Highway Lanes in UK - An innovation Technology 

Self-cleaning roads  - Clean and Clear !!!

Self Cleaning Road Material is being researched by the University of Eindhoven in the Netherlands that would resulted in a 25 to 45 % decrease in NOx in the air – which is a good thing. NOx gets gripped by the Titanium Dioxide baked into the Pavement, a photo catalytic material that uses sunlight to convert the NOx to nitrate, which is then washed away by rain. The road material also breaks down algae and dirt. 

Self Healing Concrete – Zero Cracks is the Best Policy !!! 

Hendrik Jonkers have produced this concrete which he called as “bio-concrete” that “Self-heal” by producing limestone that repairs and fills the gap of cracks generated. The bacteria which he uses are form the family of Bacillus psedofirmus which is found naturally in highly alkaline lakes near volcanoes, and are able to survive for up to a staggering 200 years without oxygen or food. They are activated once they come in contact with water and then use the calcium lactate as a food source, producing limestone that as a result, closes up the cracks. 

All of these construction technology innovations lead me to one question: with this phenomenal growth trajectory, set alight by technological ingenuity growing by the day, where could we be and what could we create in the next 100 years?

There is no doubt about it: the future is bright, and the future is mobile. Technology has brought the industry speeding into the 21st century.


What do you think will happen? Did I miss something? Leave your thoughts

Floor is a flat / plane surface either smooth or rough meant to provide a functional place for the occupants to move or place things as and when required. The purpose to define flooring is not to show that it is uncommon or special; but it was to make it clear what floor is for a civil engineer and a building expert.

Beside aesthetic reasons; floor should provide solid / strong place for the items / objects like bed, sofa, table etc, it must also ensure proper drainage of surface water along with ease in movement of the occupants.

Normally the following types of floors are generally used:

  1. Brick floor.
  2. Earth floor.
  3. Cement concrete floor.
  4. Mosaic floor.
  5. Tile floor.
  6. Marble floor.
  7. Wooden floor.


Brick flooring is commonly used. The filling over which this floor is to be laid should be well compacted. The level of the flooring being known, the filling is excavated up to the desired depth. Generally two types of beds are provided. In the first type, after excavation the surface is leveled and a layer of 3” sand is spread over which a course of bricks is laid.

In the second type, a lean cement concrete (P.C.C), one part of cement, 6 parts of sand and 18 parts of aggregates of 10 to15 cms in thickness is laid on the compacted bed. Flat brick flooring is laid into1:6 C/S   mortar over a bed of ¾ “ thick cement sand mortar. Bricks on edge flooring are laid into1:6 C/S mortar over a bed of ¾ “ thick C/S mortar.


This type of floors are most commonly used both in residential and commercial buildings. The two components of a concrete floor are Base & Wearing surface (top surface). The flooring can be constructed either monolithic or non-monolithic.
In monolithic floors, a base layer is laid and then immediately a concrete topping is provided and in non-monolithic the topping is laid after the base has set.


The topping is likely to get damaged due to subsequent building operations.
It is likely to develop hair-like cracks on account of small settlements which may occur in the base course immediately after it is laid.

When the surface of the topping gets damaged, it is very difficult to repair it. The progress is slow since the topping can be laid only after the base course has sufficiently set to allow the workmen to lay the top layer.

Topping is laid in panels over a base thickness which varies 1’ to 3”. If the thickness is  1-1/2” then it can be laid in single layer and if it is exceeding then it is laid in double layer. To avoid cracks due to shrinkage, the area of a panel is restricted to 4’ x 4’ (i.e. 16 sq. ft.).


The base for terrazzo floor is of plain cement concrete (1:2:4).  The topping shall not be less than 3/8” thick and shall be laid with a bottom layer of cement concrete (1:2:4). The total thickness of topping of cement concrete should not be less than 1-3/8”.  Normally 2” thickness is used, 1-1/2” concrete (1:2:4) and ½” mosaic.

The mosaic topping shall consist of one part of cement (including15% to30% marble powder) and two parts of marble chips. The mosaic topping shall be laid while the bottom concrete is still fresh preferably on the next day or after 24 hours to have better bond. The surface should be rough to get better bonding.


Tiles of various shapes, sizes, thicknesses, color and surface finishes are manufactured for used as surface covering for floors. Floorings tiles are set on the concrete base with mortar

Special bedding made up of asphalt or Portland cement is available for use over concrete base. The concrete bedding is generally 5” thick and is laid evenly with a slight rough surface at the top. After a period of 2 to3  days, a mortar layers of 1:1  mix is spread on the concrete bed and the tiles are set evenly with a thin a thin paste of cement applied to their sides.

They are slightly topped till the cement comes out through the joints to the top surface. This extra cement is wiped off and the joints are cleaned. After 2 to 3 days, these joints are rubbed to chip off all the projecting edges or surfaces. The whole surface is then polished with a very soft carborundum stone.

Finally the surface is washed with soap. If the tiles have glazed surfaces then this rubbing process is not suitable.


Glass floors are used wherever it is desired to admit light into the basements through the upper floor. The glass blocks are fitted within the frames of various thicknesses to transmit light at an angle to the farther areas in a room. Structural glass is available in the form of tiles or slabs and its thickness ranges from 12 to 30 millimeters.

The framework is spaced closed apart so the glass can withstand loads coming over it. Glass flooring is not commonly used.


Asphalt mastic is a mixture of fine aggregates (sand), natural or artificial asphalt and coarse aggregates. It can be mixed hot and laid in continuous sheets or pressed into blocks which can be used as flooring.

It can also be mixed with a mineral oil and asbestos and applied cold. While heating, the asphalt is stirred thoroughly so that the layer at the bottom may not get burnt, when the whole quantity is fused, sand or aggregates equal to twice the volume of asphalt is added gently and mixed thoroughly. This mixture is then ready for laying.


This type of floor construction is not extensively used but is popular for special purpose floors, e.g. in auditorium, hospitals. Wooden flooring should have a concrete base or should rest on joists spanning across walls which are constructed at suitable interval.

For the fixing of wooden floors on concrete slabs, longitudinal railing strips are provided.

Well, the word door is a very common and a very widespread word; however, today we will explain and enlighten some of the unique types of doors you might not be familiar with. Before going into that let’s first talk about technical definition of door in civil engineering. 

“The arrangements made to provide free and easy access inside and outside the rooms of a building are called Doors. “

Any building is a must to have such arrangement; in this definition free means very easily not in the sense of money. Every room in a building has a separate purpose and a unique usage. The purpose to provide a door to the room can be explained as ; 

  • To provide privacy to the occupants.
  • To ensure safety and security to the valuables.
  • To provide ventilation as and when required.
  • To provide free and easy access in and out of the room.
  • To provide luminosity and illumination to the lounge or waiting areas.
  • To protect the occupants from mosquitoes and other similar creatures.

This arrangement for access; defined as a door above, is also sometimes provided outside the building through the boundary wall enclosing the structure but that is commonly termed as a Gate. 
After this brief introduction that what the door is?, why it is provided and what are its benefits. Let’s move towards our main objective of this article; which is, Different types of common doors. 

  1. Ledged and battened doors
  2. Ledged, battened and braced doors
  3. Framed, ledged, battened and braced doors
  4. Framed and paneled doors
  5. Paneled and glazed doors
  6. Flush doors
  7. Louvered doors
  8. Revolving doors
  9. Sliding Doors
  10. Collapsible Doors
  11. Rolling Steel Doors
  12. Wire-gauged doors

Before moving into the details of all the above mentioned 12 different types of door; let me make it clear to you that all these doors have unique purpose and a function or intention to use.

Ledged and battened doors

These are the simplest type of doors. They consist of battens (each 15 cm wide and 0.8 to 1.8 cm thick) which are screwed to three horizontal members called ledges.  Top ledge is 10 cm x 3.2 cm in cross-section, middle and bottom ledges have section of 17.5 to 20 cm x 3.2 cm. Battens are generally tongued and grooved. These doors are mostly used for narrow openings in temporary houses where appearance is not the main consideration.

Ledged, battened and braced doors

This type of door is similar to a ledged and battened door except that they consist of ledges and battens which are strengthened with the help of diagonal members known as braces.  The width of braces varies from 10 to 15 cm and thickness is 3.2 cm.  The inclination of the braces should be kept towards the side of the shutter to be hinged to the frame as shown in fig.
These doors can be used for comparatively large openings in ordinary houses and in places where appearance is not so important.

Ledged, battened and braced doors

Framed, ledged, battened and braced doors

This is a better and strong type of door.  They consist of two stiles, three rails and two braces forming the frame-work of each leaf (shutter) to which he battens are fixed.  The frame-work is made with mortice and tenon joints.

The top and bottom rails and the stiles have full thickness while the middle (lock) rail and braces are thinner in section to allow the battens to pass over them and finish flush with the top and bottom rails.  
The battens should butt into the rebate in the top and bottom rails.  These shutters are hung to the frame by means of butt hinges. These doors are mostly used as external doors in ordinary residential buildings, shops etc.

Framed and paneled doors

This is the most common type of door. They are made in different designs but their principle for construction is same as in other doors.  They consist of frame-work of styles, rails and muntins or mullions of same thickness.  

The space between them is filled with panels. The vertical styles are continuous from top to bottom and rails are jointed to the styles.

 On inside of the styles and rails, grooves are made to receive the panels which may be of raised or flush type.  These shutters are hung to the frame by means of butt hinges. These doors are mostly used in residential and other buildings as internal and external doors.

Paneled and glazed doors
Paneled and glazed doors

Paneled and glazed doors

The construction of this type of door is similar to a framed and paneled door but in such doors glass panes are fixed.  In these doors, instead of wooden panels in their top portions, sash bars to receive the glass panes are used.

 Sash bars are equal in thickness to the full thickness of the shutter, with 2.5 cm with and having 1 to 3 cm rebate according to the size of the doors.  The size of the rebate is generally 1.6 cm x 0.6 cm.  Each glass pane is secured in position by small nails and is bedded with the help of lime-putty.  
It may be either 1/3rd glazed at top and2/3 paneled at bottom, or 2/3 glazed at top or 1/3 panelled at bottom. These doors are mostly used in public buildings, hospitals, colleges, offices and also in residential buildings.

Paneled and glazed doors
Paneled and glazed doors

Flush doors

These doors are made with plywood and give better appearance. They are solid and semi-solid door and are constructed and finished in many ways.  The inner core is either framed or laminated. The later makes a more solid and lasting door. These doors do not catch dust and are easy to clean. 
With the production of plywood in large quantities, flush doors are becoming more and more popular these days. These doors are mainly used as internal doors in residential buildings, restaurants, public and other important buildings.

Flush doors
Flush doors

Louvered doors

These doors are similar to glazed and paneled doors.  But in these doors, the spaces between the rails and stiles are filled with series of wooden members called louvers. 
The louvers are fixed into the stiles or made movable.   In order that they may be effective and economical, are fixed at an angle of 45 degree.

These doors allow free passage of light air and secure privacy and safety.  But they collect dust easily and are difficult to clean.

These doors are mostly used in school, workshops or at place where sufficient privacy is required besides admitting air and light freely.

Louvered doors
Louvered doors

Revolving doors

These doors consist of four shutters, arranged diagonally, revolving on a common vertical axis. Paneled, glazed or both types of shutters may be used for these doors.  They allow entrance on one side and exit on the other side.

These doors are used where there is constant foot traffic of people coming in and going out of an entrance in public buildings such as offices, banks, restaurants, hotels, theatres, and other public buildings.  They are also used in hill stations to prevent strong wind blowing inside the building directly.

Sliding Doors

These doors consist of single or double steel or wooden shutters.  They slide into the pockets provided in the masonry wall. These doors are commonly used for workshops, garages and on windows in shops etc.

Sliding Doors
Sliding Doors

Collapsible Doors

These doors consist of frame work of rolled steel sections and are provided with rollers at bottom which roll on rails.  These doors are rolled when they are to be opened or collapsed. Flat iron pieces are used cross wise and are fixed to vertical flat iron pieces at 12 to 15 cm centre to centre so as to form parallelograms. When pushed, the parallelograms get collapsed.
These doors are used in public buildings such as banks, railway stations, sheds, godowns, workshops etc.

Sliding Doors  Collapsible Doors
Sliding Doors
Collapsible Doors

Rolling Steel Doors

These doors are generally made of thin corrugated steel plates ( or sheets) which roll up on a roller or drum.  The shutter slides in grooves in the side walls.  The shutter may be counter balanced by sprigs so that it can be easily raised on lowered by hand.  

These doors are sufficiently strong and may be safely used in exposed places. These doors are mostly used for main entrance of shops, showrooms, and garages

Rolling Steel Doors
Rolling Steel Doors

Wire-gauged doors

These doors are normally hung on the same chowkhat (frame) as other door and window shutters of the frame.  The thickness of the frame is increased suitably to cut the rebate for the wire gauged shutters.
These doors allow free passage of the air and light and at the same time do not allow entrance of flies and mosquitoes inside the rooms of a building. These doors are mostly used in kitchens and dining rooms of residential buildings

Each type of floor has its own merits and there is not even a single type which can be suitably provided under all circumstances, and more so when floors have to serve different purposes in different types of buildings. 

Therefore before final selection of any type of flooring one must know the functional requirements that must exist in any floor system. 

Keeping in view of its importance, today i will talk about the requirements and functions which must be there in a good floor system.

1. Initial Cost. 
The cost of construction is very important in the selection of type of floor. A floor covering of marble, granite, special clay tiles, etc. is considered to be very expensive, whereas a flooring of cork, slate, vinyl tile, etc. is moderately expensive. The floors made of concrete and brick offer the cheapest type of floor construction. It should be ensured during the comparison of cost for different floors that the cost of both covering and sub-floor has been accounted for. 
2. Appearance calc
Flooring should produce the desired color effect and architectural beauty in conformity with its use in the building. Generally, flooring of terrazzo, tiles, marble and cement mortar provides a good appearance whereas the asphalt covering gives an ugly appearance. 
3. Cleanliness
A floor should be non-absorbent and  capable of being easily and effectively cleaned. All joints in flooring should be such as to offer a watertight surface. Moreover, greasy and oily substances should neither spoil the appurtenance nor have a destroying effect on the flooring materials. 
4. Durability
The flooring material should offer sufficient resistance to wear and tear, temperature, chemical action, etc. so as to provide long life to the floors. From the durability point of view, flooring of marble, terrazzo, tiles and concrete is considered to be of the best type. Flooring of other materials such as linoleum, rubber, cork, bricks, wood blocks, etc. can be used where heavy floor traffic is not anticipated. 
5. Damp-resistance
All the floors, especially ground floors, should offer sufficient resistance against the dampness in buildings to ensure a healthy environment. Normally, floors of clay tiles, terrazzo, concrete bricks, etc. are preferred for use where the floors are subjected to dampness. 
6. Sound Insulation 
According to modern building concepts, a floor should neither create noise when used nor transmit noise. Sometimes, it is required that any movement on the top floors should not disturb the persons working on the other floors. Suitable flooring is provided which is somewhat noiseless when traveled over. 
7. Thermal Insulation: 
It should be possible for a building to maintain constant temperature or heat the inside the building irrespective of the temperature changes outside. Thermal insulation is needed to reduce the demand of heating in winter and refrigeration in summer. It is important in the case of wooden floors where heat losses are considerable and in solid floors with heating pipes or cables where the heat looses at the edges of the floor slab can be higher. Floors of word, corck, etc. are best suited for this purpose. 
8. Smoothness: 
The floor covering should be of superior type as to exhibit a smooth and even surface. However, at the same times, it should not be too slippery which will otherwise endanger safe movements over it, particularly by old people and children. 
9. Hardness: 
It is desirable to use good quality floor covering, which do not give rise to any form of indentation marks, imprints, etc. when used for either supporting the loads or moving the loads over them. Normally, the hard surfaces rendered by concrete, marble, stone, etc. do not show any impressions, whereas the coverings like asphalt, cork, plastics, etc. do form marks on the surfaces when use in traffic. 
10. Maintenance 
It is always desired that the maintenance cost should be as low as possible. Generally, a covering of tiles, marble, terrazzo or concrete requires less maintenance cost as compared to the floors of word blocks, cork, etc. it should, however, be noted that the repairing of a concrete surface is more difficult than the flooring of tiles, marbles. Etc. 

A wise engineer once said “A structure is no stronger than its connections”. Although this statement usually invokes images of connections between individual structural members. It also applies to those between a structure and the ground that supports it. These connections are known as its foundations. Even the ancient builders know that the most carefully design structures can fail if they are not supported by suitable foundations. The Tower of Pisa in Italy reminds us of this truth. 

Buildings impart their weight and other loads, such as wind or seismic forces, onto their foundations. These loads must be safely and economically transmitted into the ground. Large buildings require extensive foundation systems that represent a significant part of the total construction cost. 

In the design process of foundation one of the first steps is to define the performance requirements. What functions do we expect the final product to accomplish? What are the appropriate design criteria? What constitutes acceptable performance, and what would be unacceptable? 

After said that; let’s talk in brief about some important key / major points to be remembered by Foundation Engineer; 

1. The foundation engineer must determine the necessary performance requirements before designing a foundation. 
2. Foundations must support various types of structural loads. These can include normal, shear, moment, and/or torsion loads. The magnitude and direction of these loads may vary during the life of the structure. 
3. Loads also are classified according to their sources. These include dead loads, live loads, wind loads, earthquake loads, and several others. 
4. Design loads may be expressed using either the allowable stress design (ASD) or the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method. It is important to know which method is being used, because the design computation must be performed accordingly. 
5. Strength requirements are those that are intended to avoid catastrophic failure. There are two kinds; geotechnical strength requirements and structural strength requirements. 
6. Serviceability requirements are those intended to produce foundations that perform well when subjected to the service loads. These requirements include settlement, heave, tile, lateral movement, vibration and durability. 
7. Settlement is often the most important serviceability requirement. The response of structures to settlements is complex, so we simplify the problem by considering two types of settlement; total settlement and differential settlement. We assign maximum allowable values for each, and then design the foundation to satisfy these requirements. 
8. Durability is another important serviceability requirement. Foundations must be able to resist the various corrosive and deteriorating agents in soil and water. 
9. Foundations must be buildable; so design engineers need to have at least a rudimentary understanding of construction methods and equipment. 
10. Foundation design must be economical. Although conservatism is appropriate, excessively conservative designs can be too needlessly expensive to build. 


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