Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete sometimes called carboconcrete is a type of concrete that is reinforced with carbon fibers so it’s also known as “Carbon Reinforced Concrete”; It is a highly stressable lightweight composite construction that combines special fine grain ultra high-strength concrete and carbon fibers. It has higher strength than steel with quarter of its weight.

As for brittle material in general, concrete is strong under compression and weak under tension or flexure.  This problem may be alleviated by the addition of short carbon fibers (typically 10 micrometer in diameter). Almost all the previous work on carbon fiber reinforced concrete was conducted in Japan and it showed that the use of carbon fibers in the amount of 2 vol % approximately doubled the flexural strength. Recent work performed in U.S.A by Zheng and Chung showed the approximate doubling of the flexural strength with only 0.3 vol. % carbon fibers – an improvement resulting from the use of chemical agents.

Basically Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic or Carbon Fiber Reinforced thermoplastic or often simply carbon fiber is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.

Carboconcrete has many applications in the field of civil engineering. It is now studied in academics and at post-graduate level for research. It is cost-effective and sustainable approach for strengthening of concrete or masonry structure. In most of the cases the CFRB (Carebon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) is used as retrofitting to strengthen an existing structure or a replacement of pre-stressing.
It can be used to increase the load carrying capacity of the existing structure for example if a bridge was constructed in the past with some service load which is now subjected to a greater load can be made strong by using retrofitting.

The first ever use of carbon reinforced polymer was done by Thomas Edison as filaments for early light bulbs because of their high tolerance to heat which made these fibers ideal for conducting electricity.

In early 1990s, researches showed that carbon fibers can be used inside the concrete instead of steel reinforcement showing a significant improvement in the flexural and tensile strength of concrete.

Carbon Fiber Vs Steel

  • Carbon Fiber is 75% lighter than steel
  • More durable and corrosion free
  • It is 5 times higher in tensile strength
  • It is 2 times higher in stiffness
  • And Is also have more temperature tolerance.

Due to high tensile strength the sections can be smaller and thus more Earthquake resistance. As less materials are needed for maintenance and construction thus they are more eco-friendly. And due to low weight are easy to handle. Due to high abrasion resistance they are more suitable for highway construction.

Some of the rare disadvantages include;

  • High initial cost as the material involved is expensive
  • Lack of knowelge is there as no implementation is made yet and also no special codes are there.  Due to high thermal conductivity it has high HVAC consumption.


Here are some of the ideas researchers have found to use carbo-concrete  or carbon reinforced concrete


Carbon reinforced Concrete pushed the limits of creativity and flexibility in design. Made it possible to build unique structures that can withstand very high loads. Save maintainance cost on the long run.

If ever in your life you have dreamed of building bridges, highways, constructing dams, retaining walls than you for sure have to do some research on getting an associate degree in civil engineering.
Civil Engineers are professionals that design, develop, construct and oversee construction projects that have a solid impact on the life of mankind. These projects are from vast fields including highways where they build rigid pavements, flexible pavements, bridges, culverts and drains, structural designs including buildings, dams, foundations etc.

A civil engineering degree is of different levels depending on the level of your education, it may be associate degree, bachelors degree or a graduate degree. Civil Engineering Degree is a base to establish a thriving career as a civil engineer.

Online Associates Degree in Civil Engineering

In this article we will just remain to find ways and sources to get online associate degree in civil engineering.  Being an associate Civil Engineer you have ways and freedom to assist and work with architects and senior engineers to construct infrastructure projects. If ever you have thought that you are good in Maths and you can play with your hands outdoor than it will be a very good choice for your career to be an associate civil engineer.

Find Online Associates Degree in Civil Engineering

Since this is such a hands-on profession, it’s difficult to find online associate degree programs in civil engineering technology. These associate degree programs are usually around two years in length, if you attend full time. Your courses will consist of several general education courses, as well as introductory-level civil engineering and general engineering courses.

Online Associate Degree Program in Civil Engineering takes two years to complete. There are several subjects you will learn some basic ones include, physics, topography, estimating, computer aided drafting. You can also move towards your specialization like heavy construction, consulting firm as well as government agencies include some of the options :-

Areas of Associate Degree

  • ·         Land surveying
  • ·         Engineering mechanics
  • ·         Technical writing
  • ·         Engineering materials
  • ·         Highway construction and design
  • ·         Technical mathematics
  • ·         Auto CAD
  • ·         Hydraulics
  • ·         Infrastructure design
  • ·         Inspection, surveying, and estimating
  • ·         Geotechnical design

Once you gain an Associate Civil Engineering Degree, you can be confident to pursue a worthwhile career. Keeping in view the rapid development in technology nowadays, the job market for civil engineers has become very promising. You can work in different capacitates and earn a handsome salary.

Requirement of an Associate Degree in Civil Engineering

Before you settle for an Associate Civil Engineering Degree program online, it is imperative to make sure that the institute you settle for is fully accredited. A learner must research well and find all the necessary details pertaining to an online school or college so that he can gain quality education.
Being an associate Civil Engineer you always have to look for experience, because in the world of engineering whether you are graduate or post graduate experience is the thing that will earn you a lot. Salaries are also dependent on experience and education level.

After completing your associate degree you can have two paths either you can opt for higher education depending on whether your subjects and availability of seats are there or you can go for an entry-level job after completing your degree.

Associate's degree programs in civil engineering technology can be difficult to find online. You can instead enroll in a hybrid civil engineering technology program that offers a select number of general education and engineering technology courses online. Computer-based classes like drafting and design usually can be completed online, while laboratory and mathematics courses generally must be taken on campus.

Bridge is basically a structure that is carrying a road, a path, railway etc. across a river, road or other obstable. It is a structure spanning and providing passage over a river, chasm, road or the like. 

At the end of this post you will be able to understand :- 
  • What is a bridge?
  • What are the different components of a bridge?
  • What are parts of bridge superstructure?
  • What are parts of bridge substructure?
  • What are parts of bridge with diagrams?
  • What is the girder of a bridge?
  • What is the superstructure of a bridge? 

After knowing what really the bridge is, lets move forward to the basic theme behind writing this post that what are the basic parts of a bridge. 
Although the parts of the bridge is dependent on that what actually the bridge type is, and we all as a structural engineer know that there are many types of bridges, but here we will discuss the common parts every type of bridge have. 

Everystructure in civil engineering has two basic portions one is called substructure and other is called super structure. Substructure is that part of the structure that is beneath the natural soil level NSL. It is usually the foundation that may be deep or shallow depending on the geotechnical properties of the bearing strata. Usually in the south Asia region the strata is not that much strong so usually piles are considered suitable and feasible. 

Then the other part of the structure is the superstructure, in bridges the superstructure includes, the pier, abutments, transoms and the deck. 

We will start from the substructure, first is the Pile and the Pile cap. 

Piles and Pile Cap

Pile foundation is deep foundation that transfers the load to the underneath soil farther down to a good bearable strata. It is actually a long vertical selender member that bears the compression load and transfers the load either through surface friction or end bearing. 

Depending on the loading conditions and the types of piles used, a group of pile is constructed underneath a pier. It may be a group of 9 or 12 depending upon the structural and geotechnical design. In order to uniformly transfer the load from the superstructure to the pile an intermediate slab is constructured which is deep enough to sufficient moment of intertia, that intermediate slab is called Pile Cap. 

Parts of Bridges
Parts of Bridges


After the foundation pile and pilecap there comes a pier. A pier is just like a column which can be of uniform cross-section through its height or may be varying depending on the top deck width. Piers are actually compression members that also have to take care of some buckling or bending due to eccentric loading because of poor workmanship or for structural safety. 

Pier Cap or Transom 

It is actually the near to deck part of the bridge, It is that part on which bearings for girders will rest. They are responsible for transfer of load from girder to pier. They actually have a varying width at the top and plays important role as far as asthetics of a bridge is considered. 


As we all know that if we place the girder directly on the solid transoms then due to wear and tear as a result of the traffic movement the transoms or girders may get damanged. Thus they are saved by providing an end bearing usually some elastomeric so that can also work like a shock abrosber or as damping member. 

Parts of Bridges


The girders are just underneath the deck and are used to transfer the load of the deck to the bearings. They can be a box girder, U girder, I girder, inverted T girder or any other depending on the structural requirement. 

Bridge Deck 

It is the top surface on which the highway engineer will construct their flexible or rigid pavement. Bridge Deck is a slab that transfers directly the load of the traffic to the girders. The girders are made monolithic by using diaphragms and the top reinforcement of the girder is made to project in to the deck slab to make a perfect bond between them all. 

Parts of Bridges

Thailand’s tallest building, MahaNakhon, put on a spectacular light and sound show on Monday to celebrate the completion of the megastructure.
The skyscraper, with fragmented architecture, has been a show-stopper in Bangkok’s Silom central business area since it started taking shape.

The 314-meter-high all-purpose skyscraper was designed by Buro Ole Scheeren, the Berlin-based architecture firm that was behind CCTV’s iconic headquarters in Beijing, and is made up of condominiums, a hotel, a shopping center and observation deck on its 77th floor.

The shopping mall and an activity ground are already opened to the public while other services are slated to open next year, according to Bangkok Post.

A total of 68 excavators were dispatched on Friday night to remove the Yonghemen Flyover, which was a vital road of downtown Nanchang in southeast China’s Jiangxi Province.

Add caption

The area affected by the dismantling of the flyover will be cleared by Monday when traffic is expected to resume. The move came as a new subway line, Nanchang Subway Line 2, is set to pass through the area to help ease traffic volume.

According to, a local online news portal, during rush hours, 5,000 vehicles on average pass through the area. It is estimated that there are around 750,000 motor vehicles around the city, and the overpass could not help ease traffic gridlocks.

Built in 1992, Yonghemen Flyover stretched 504 meters in length, and 14.8 meters in width. It covered an area of 6,180 square meters, and had two traffic lanes on each side.

The intent of this manual is to provide guidelines and criteria for engineers, architects, developers, and contractors who plan, design, or construction projects that require new, relocated, or renovated sanitary sewer systems. This manual identifies the steps necessary to obtain city approval and acceptance or sanitary sewer system projects.

This manual is intended to provide specific requirements for the city’s approval of gravity flow sanitary sewer collection systems with pipes 10 inches or less in diameter and pump stations and force mains with capacities less than 300 gallons per minute.

For all other types of sewers collection systems and for pump stations larger than 300  - gpm capacity, submittal to and approval by the Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation shall be required in addition to the city’s approval.

Title of the Book

Sanitary Sewer System Design & Construction manual

Table of Contents

General Engineering Requirements
Collection System

Download the Book

The Content is for Members Only !!!

This Book is available to download for our free members, you can simply click the button below to signup / login for your free membership and download the book now.

Like all other professions the basic document needed to apply for any job in Civil Engineering is a CV or a resume. If you are in the final year of your graduation that its your best time to make a CV or a Resume before graduation so that you can apply for various opportunities / jobs to be a successful professional individual.

Resume / CV Samples for Civil Engineering 

Basically CV is acronym for Curriculum Vitae, which in Latin means “course of Life”, so CV is actually a summary of your experience, skills and education. 

Resume is also summary of your skills and education but the word Resume is a French word and mostly in Canada and USA the word Resume is usually used. 

"Your resume is a marketing tool"
So basically CV or a Resume is often the first phase in getting yourself noticed by potential employer. When employers have a vacancy they need to fill they will put together a person specification, a list of skills and experience they want the ideal candidate to possess. From this list, the job advert is created, which is where they will ask you to send them your CV.  CV is a quick “snapshot” of you with the intent of capturing and emphasizing interests and secure you an interview. 

It is not an autobiography. Since your resume is a primary tool in your job search, it needs to be carefully written and critiqued. 

Your resume is a marketing tool. It needs to demonstrate:

That you are employable 
How you meet the job and the organisation's requirements 
That you have the right qualifications and education 
That you have the right experience and skills 
That you have the right level of professionalism for the job

Generally the order of the resume or CV is also important so here is a recommended order 

Contact details
Opening statement 
List of key skills 
List of technical/software skills
Personal attributes/career overview
Educational qualifications
Employment history/volunteering/work placements 

Civil Engineering CV / Resume Samples

Today I am here going to share with you some CV Resume Samples for Civil Engineers some are editable some are just for reference and some are for design / templates in word. 

Editable Word .doc and .docx format CV Resumes for Civil Engineers

Note: To download these file no membership is required it is free for all. 

The analogous advancements in computing and sciences have made it possible for engineers to solve tedious calculations and steps in seconds, which in result have uplift the standard of the designs and developments. Computer systems and softwares have made it easy for all of us. 

Civil Engineering, dealing with the design, execution, supervision, development and construction of infrastructure including dams, buildings, highways, bridges, harbors, offshore structures and much more you name it and we have it. 

Civil Engineering includes playing with forces of nature, loads and stresses and strains that has so much calculations involved and so much tests and criterions are there which is hard to remember and hard to execute. 

There are a lot of softwares used in Civil Engineering various fields like structural engineering, highway engineering, geotechnical engineering, water resources etc. 

Following is a comprehensive list of softwares along with their uses, features and how you can download these softwares :- 

1. Autodesk 3ds Max 

3d Studio Max or 3ds Max is now being used frequently by Video game developers, TV Commercials, Animated Movies and architectural visualization studios. It is also being used for movie effects and movie pre-visualization.
3ds Max provides efficient tools, accelerated performance, and streamlined workflows to help increase overall productivity for working with complex, high-resolution assets.
3ds Max gives users the ability to construct digital three-dimensional models and, by applying lighting, materials and other features enabled by the program, to create photorealistic renderings and
animations of the 3d Objects.
You can download this softwares here : Click here

2. Bently WaterCAD V8i 

In most of civil engineering projects from Housing to hydraulic related projects hydrology is mostly involved in combination with fluid mechanics. Water distribution networks are of significance importance from satisfaction of end user point of view.

Design and modeling of water distribution have some long tedious empirical formulas like Hardy Cross Method and other such methods which solves the network diagrams of pipes and water distribution network.

This tedious and long term repetitive calculation can be avoided by using the computer as our helper. There are a lot of softwares available in the market that can do the water quality modeling solution for water distribution system for example EPA Net and Water CAD.

WaterCAD has a name and have got quality in it that can help you design and model the water distribution system upto optimum level without any problem.

3. SAP 2000 

SAP is an acronym of Structural Analysis Program, the complete name of the software is SAP2000. SAP2000 is a general purpose finite element program which performs the static or dynamic, linear or nonlinear analysis of structural system.

SAP was the first finite element program (to know more about finite element go here) that was written by Prof Ed Wilson at University of California Berkeley and was first conceptualized by Prof Ray Clough in the 1960’s. SAP used the stiffness matrix for the analysis and beginning elements were brick, plate, and shell.

With SAP2000 you can develop a computational building model with different kinds of materials, cross-sectional dimensions of various structural members like columns, beams, trusses etc and then place different sorts of loads point loads, uniform load, gradually varying loads etc on the building model that are needed and at last you test that model to ensure its survival, SAP2000 gives you accurate and precise ready to use reports and output presentable results.

SAP2000 is fully equipped with US, Canadian and International Design standards and codes like ACI concrete code, AISC building codes and AASHTO specifications.

Click here to download

4. Primavera P6

Civil Engineering has projects that include large number of activities, excess amount of resources in terms of labor, machinery, time and tools. All these activities are to be managed. Planning engineer first has to perform work break down Structure (WBS) and then allocate resources and time to it.
Primavera P6 is the latest software package that is used for comprehensive enterprise project portfolio management (EPPM) solutions. Primavera was founded by Primavera Systems Inc. in 1983 which is then acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2008.

Primavera is not a project manager it only performs the calculation for you, project manager has to visualize the project activities, duration, their dependencies etc and then input all this into Primavera. Primavera will then perform network calculations by PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) after which the critical path, duration of project and estimated cost based on the cost and time of the activities is generated.

5. AutoDesk AUTOCAD software

CAD stands for Computer-Aided-Design, which means we design different civil engineering drawings with the help of computer. AutoCAD is a software package developed by a famous company AutoDesk. AutoDesk has been pioneers in developing the CAD software. AutoCAD is considered as the most widely used essential in engineering designs.

Civil Engineering includes many plans and drawings like architectural plans, elevations and sections along with 3d virtualization and rendering, structural drawings including detailed reinforcement plans and sections of beams, columns and other structural elements and components in a building or structure.

AutoCAD has many tools that will help you make your drawing professional looking and precise. AutoCAD’s GUI or Graphical User Interface has many ways to use an option, you can use your mouse and click a button from a toolbar or you can use your key strokes to activate a command. AutoCAD with the passage of time have become more user friendly and easy to use software. Your mouse has so many options along with you now.

6. CSI Bridge

Bridge is a very important and strategic infrastructure of an area connecting and joining the two cities or region by spanning space or some hurdle. The delicacy and fragility of its design tends the designer to be much more careful and take safety in to consideration. This is one of the reasons bridge design is comparatively a complex and deeper.

Introduction of computing in the design of structures have revolutionized the designing process and accuracy in the results and consequently safety and economy as an ultimate goal has been achieved. Softwares not only have a step by step checks and measures which minimizes the error and chances of failure.

Computer and Structures Inc. being founded in 1975 by Ashraf Habibullah a structural engineer and a software developer has grown and developed softwares like ETABS, SAP2000, CSI Bridge, and SAFE. These software are now used in most of the design offices and companies and its application can be found in renowned worldwide projects like  Word Trade center, Burj al Dubai etc.
CSI Bridge in today’s structural engineering market is a very handy and versatile tool that can perform all the tasks of bridge designing with ease. With CSI Bridge you can perform modeling analysis and design of bridge structures by just few clicks with such a short amount of time.

7. MS Project 

Project Management in general or construction management in particular is a very significant and important part of any civil engineering projects that includes labour, activities that has specific duration and some resources like machinery or time as well. A project by  a particular definition can be defined as;
So for our ease different companies have made Project Management tools like Primavera by Oracle and MS Project by Microsoft. They have a very easy to use interface where you can solve the network diagrams on a single click and generate important reports like gantt chart etc. Also you can perform typical project management activities like Scheduling and Crashing of activities etc. 
In this post I am sharing with you very basic and easy to use software for project management i.e. Microsoft Project 2007 or MS Project 2007 it is a MS Office by part that comes with variety of diversity and functionality.


To facilitate the simulations for networks of junctions, pipes, pumps, valves, and storage structures, calculating flow or water, pressures, tank elevations and concentrations of chemical species, water age and source tracing, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a windows based software called EPA-NET. It was released back in 1993 but the stable version of it was published  by Lewis A. Rossman in the year 2008.

EPA-NET is mostly used to design water distribution system for a community or a town etc. EPA NET was started as a research tool that improves our understanding of the movement and fate of drinking – water constituents within distribution systems.

The following are some of few applications of epanet.
- Flow in pipes
- Pressures at junctions
- Propagation of a contaminant
- Chlorine concentration
- Water age

It can also model various types of vales to check and regulate the flow.

9. CSi SAFE 

SAFE stands for Slab Analysis by Finite Element Method. SAFE satisfies all the structural requirements of a structural engineer from framing layout to detail drawing procedure. SAFE provide all the engineering design process aspects in one place to the structural engineer.
SAFE is a sophisticated, yet easy to use, special purpose analysis, design, and detailing program developed specifically for concrete slab and basement systems.

SAFE couples powerful object-based modeling tools with an sensitive graphical interface, allowing the quick and efficient modeling of slabs of regular or arbitrary geometry with openings, drop panels, post-tensioning, ribs, edge beams, and supported by columns, walls, or soil. 

Design is flawlessly integrated with the modeling and analysis, and provides comprehensive reporting of the required reinforcement calculated based on a chosen design code.


HEC-RAS stands for Hydraulic Engineering Center, River Analysis system, as the name suggests, Hydraulic Engineering Center (HEC) has developed this River Analysis System (RAS). Hydraulic Engineering Center (HEC) is situated in Davis, California, USA.  HEC-RAS is a computer program/software that allows you to perform one-dimensional steady and unsteady flow river hydraulics calculation including modeling and analysis. HEC-RAS supports multi-tasking, multi-user network environment which means if in your office you have a networked environment you can share the calculations, models, results and reports.

HEC-RAS provides a rich Graphical User Interface (GUI) where it has various components like hydraulic analysis components, data storage, management, graphics and reporting components.

HEC-RAS supports one-dimensional analysis of river flow; that means if the cross-sectional shape changes, if bends are there or other two or three dimensional aspects are there, their hydraulic effects would not be included in the modeling and analysis.

11. Eagle Point Road Calc

Eagle Point is a software corporation that has been founded in 1983. The purpose was to deliver technical software and services to the construction market. Eagle point is an industry partner of Autodesk the company who developed AUTOCAD for engineers, architects in helping the required computer aided drawing services.
The mission statement of Eagle point corporation is to provide products and services for engineers and architects to use autocad drawings for further enhanced productive experience, like site development, road infrastructure, contour development etc.


Acronym of Extended 3D Analysis of Building Systems, is a software by a Computers and Structures,, Inc. (CSI); a Berkeley, California based engineering software company founded in 1975. ETABS is an engineering software product that can be used to analyze and design multi-storey buildings using grid-like geometry, various methods of analysis and solution techniques, considering various load combinations.

ETABS is for linear, non-linear static and dynamic analysis, and the design of building systems.  The need of special software was there for analysis and design of building and structures, and thus CSI comes forward with the TABS series.

ETABS can be effectively used in the analysis and design of building structures which might consists of structural members like beams, columns, slabs, shear walls etc, With ETABS you can easily apply various construction materials to your structural members like concrete, structural steel, Reinforced Concrete etc. ETABS automatically generates the self-weights and the resultant gravity and lateral loads.

13. Staad Pro Software

Structural Analysis and Design (STAAD) is also some time referred as STAAD Pro. For Professional. As the name suggests it is a design computer program that deals with the designing of structure beams steel or concrete or any other material; generally STAAD and ETABS runs parallel with each other in design; it is used to do framing of the architectural drawing that is obtained from the architect, to determine the loading combinations; then the position of beams columns is decided after which their dimensions and steel requirement is calculated and checked by STAAD. STAAD works both ways if you give dimensions and steel percentages, it will analyze your structure and at the end even give you recommendations for the improvement in design.

STAAD was developed by Research Engineers International in 2005 which was bought by Bentley Systems. From construction market point of view STAAD pro is one of the most widely used software for the analysis and design of structures.

It is used for both static and dynamic analysis as well considering the earthquake shaking etc. STAAD is well integrated with other softwares as well; like RAM connection and STAAD foundation design software.

So that means you have planned to get yourself into one of the world’s best universities / colleges / schools for yourself to get undergraduate or graduate studies in the subject of Civil Engineering.  If you are looking for Best Civil Engineering universities in the world, if you want to find out the top 100 civil engineering schools or even best colleges in the world? If your answer is Yes than here is a comprehensive list of schools and universities that are offering civil engineering and are ranked as best or top in the world.

Best Civil Engineering Schools in the World

The subject based ranking of the universities or schools is based on their academic reputation, employer reputation and research impact.

Dealing with the construction, planning, designing and overseeing the development as well as maintenance of buildings, highways, public health engineering,  railroads, bridges, dams, irrigation projects, harbors, it is one of the oldest engineering discipline on the planet.

Civil Engineering finds its rank among the highly paid profession throughout the world. Having majority of departments in the government sectors as well as private sector. Having vast scope of areas, most of the graduates easily find their jobs and have a prosperous career.

"The subject based ranking of the universities or schools is based on their academic reputation, employer reputation and research impact."
1. Massachussets Institute of Technology (MIT), United States of America (USA)

The department of Civil & Environmental Engineering CEE was founded in 1865, just after the civil war. During that time the focus was on surveying and building infrastructure; roads, railways, bridges, canals and drinking water systems.

The department’s intellectual focus is discovery and innovation to understand the world, invent and lead with creative design to sustain life and society in ever-changing environments. Both graduate and undergraduate courses are offered with opportunity to blend their educational foundation, and to prepare for the challenges in sustainability, through many disciplinary studies, built around a solid and rigorous foundation of mathematics, statistics and data, computation, and hands-on laboratories.
Some of the areas of interest are ; Structural Engineering & Design, Transportation , Network Analysis & Design (with applications to natural and man-made systems; e.g. cities, transportation, logistics, environment, smart infrastructure), Sustainable Materials (e.g. construction, infrastructure, energy), Multiscale Geomechanics (in the context of energy, resources, including critical zone & subsurface processes) Coastal Engineering & Fluid Dynamics, Environmental Microbiology, Environmental Chemistry (air, water, land), Terrestrial Plant Ecology & Plant Physiology, Benign Design & Manufacturing.

MIT University
MIT, source : Cambridge

2. University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, UK

The department of Civil Engineering in the University of Cambridge, UK has an aim of advancing the mechanics of civil and structural engineering systems within the broader context of the design, construction and operation of sustainable infrastructure, and the stewardship of Earth’s resources and environment. The Head of department is Dr. Simon Guest.

Cambridge University, Uk
University of Cambridge, UK, Source: Glass Door

The department is composed of some centers and divisions, including Laing O’ Rourke Center for construction engineering and technology, geotechnical and environmental group, structures and sustainable development group. For Graduate program MSt in Construction Engineering and MPhil in Engineering for Sustainable Development is interesting.

3. National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore

Founded in 1905, NUS is the oldest institute of higher learning in Singapore with the status of public and autonomous university.  With over 37 thousand students it has total endowment of 3.12 Billion SGD.
NUS Singapore
NUS, Singapore: Source: Channel news asia

The Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering  formed on 27 September 2010, ,headed by Prof Quek Ser Tong, has generally gone through a good year.

The Department offer Undergraduate, Graduate level and Research based Degrees in the fields of Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Structural, Geotechnical, Offshore, Infrastructure Project Management, Transportation Systems and Management etc.

Scholarships and Financial Aids are also available to the deserving students.

4. University of California, Berkeley, United States

University of California Berkely was founded in 1868 and is among the oldest top ten research universities with total enrollment of 38 thousand students. The department of Civil and Environmental Engineering is among the top ranked in US. The Colleges of Civil Engineering and Mining were established in 1872 in California University.

University of California Berkeley, USA
University of California Berkeley, USA Source:Amazon News

The programs that are offered here include topics like energy, civil infrastructure and climate, engineering and project management, environmental engineering, geoengineering, structural engineering, mechanics and materials, systems and transportation engineering.

There are large number of research laboratories and instruction including structures and materials, environmental water resources laboratories, Geotechnical engineering laboratories.

5. Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, 

With the total enrollment of over 19 thousand students, the Delft University of Technology was founded in 1842 and is among the oldest dutch public technological university.

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, have following departments, Department of Structural Engineering, Geosciences and engineering, geosciences and remote sensing, hydraulic engineering, transport and planning, water management.

Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Delft University of Technology, Netherlands Source:Green roofs

The faculty offers undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate courses in the university, Bachelor Programmes include Civil Engineering, Applied Earth Sciences. The graduate programs include applied earth sciences, civil engineering, coastal and marine engineering and management, construction management and engineering, cross-faculty MSc Prgrammes including offshore and dredging engineering, transport, infrastructure and logistics. 596 refereed articles have been published, 85 PhD Defences are there including 447 PhD candidates

6. Imperial College, London, 

Founded on July 8, 1907 by Edward VII Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, UK.  The areas of interest include environment, water resources, fluid mechanics, structures, system and transport engineering.

In 1913, Civil Engineering separated from Mechanical engineering to form a department in its own right. The stats that may interest you 50+ full time academic staff, 10+ research and teaching fellows, 30+ research staff, 160 PhD students , 62% male; 38% female, 260 MSc students, 65% male; 35% female.

The vision includes;  To advance the very basic science at the core of civil engineering and its sub-disciplines. To explore opportunities for discovery at the intersections of existing disciplines. Build a future without walls by participation in cross-disciplinary research teams to address the world's most challenging problems. Foster long-term, strategic relationships with companies, foundations, governmental organisations, and other partners to advance research.

7. Standford University, United States

Founded on November, 11, 1885 with total endowment of 22.2 Billion USD it is among the top ranked institutes of United States.  The department of civil and environmental engineering  have both research and teaching have global reach faculty currently working in Japan, Armenia, Chile, Tanzania, india, France, Israel, Mozambique and Bangladesh.

Current projects include engineering and renovation of dams, coral reef hydrodynamics, new approaches to mass transit systems, waste water reuse, the development of novel, bio-based structural materials, and the use of life cycle analyses and seismic technologies to ensure sustainable buildings and infrastructure.

The teaching and research falls in to three categories ;-

Atmosphere & Energy – combining atmospheric science with energy science and engineering.
The Built Environment – focusing on creating a sustainable built environment and including programs in Structural Engineering and Geomechanics, Architectural Design, and Sustainable Design and Construction.
The Water Environment – focusing on managing the water environment for sustainable human benefit and developing environmental policies that promote ecosystem heath and human safety, and including programs in Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydrology, and Environmental Engineering and Science.
Both undergraduate and graduate courses are offered in the university.

8. Tsinghua University China

Tsinghua University is a research university located in Beijing, China, and one of the nine members in the elite C9 League of universities. With over total enrollment of above 45 thousand students the university is among the top ranked in China.

School of Civil Engineering was founded in 2000, based on two well known department in Tsinghua Univeristy, namely Department of Civil Engineering and Department of Hydraulic and Hydropower Engineering.

As one of the most time-honored departments in Tsinghua University, Department of Civil Engineering was founded in 1926, with four sections provided including structure, railway & roadway, hydraulic engineering and municipal sanitation and a considerable number of outstanding talents cultivated. In 1952, during the nationwide re-organization of colleges and departments, Department of Hydraulic Engineering was founded based on the corresponding section, with two programs available, namely river & waterpower station structure and hydraulic dynamical equipment. Meanwhile, Department of Civil Engineering had five programs, namely industrial and civil structure, construction, water supply and sewerage, heating & ventilating discipline, building materials.

9. University of Hong Kong (HKU), HongKong

Founded on March 30, 1911 with total enrollment of over 27 thousands students the university is oldest tertiary institution in Hong Kong.

Since the establishment of The University of Hong Kong and the Faculty of Engineering in 1912, the Department of Civil Engineering has nurtured many brilliant leaders in the civil engineering discipline and made significant contributions to the local and overseas community. , The Department is constantly looking ahead to enhancing its goals in education, research and community services in order to keep abreast of the ever-changing demands of modern society. We are very pleased to have ranked 9th globally for the second year under the QS University Subject Rankings 2016 in the subject area of Civil Engineering.

ong Kong has enjoyed tremendous growth in the past three decades. Such enviable growth and economic achievement have been made possible through the success of infrastructure projects - the cross harbour tunnels, the mass transit railways, the new towns, the highways, the water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The new airport at Chek Lap Kok, the new container port at Tsing Yi and Lantau, the new Route 3 and the western corridor railway to the border, as well as massive sewage collection, treatment and disposal works are now under construction.

10. University of Tokyo, Japan

The University of Tokyo, abbreviated as Todai or UTokyo, is a research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan. The university has 10 faculties with a total of around 30,000 students.

Since launching the International Engineering Program in 1982, the department has provided a high-level educational environment for the design of infrastructure technology, planning, disaster mitigation, and environmental management in English.

To  produce talented individuals who are capable of managing and leading international infrastructure development projects throughout the world. Based on this proven 30 year track record and know-how in recruiting outstanding students and supporting an alumni network, the objective of the educational program is to establish a unique community of top-level civil engineers.
This aim is achieved through encouraging close collaboration between Japanese and International students and preparing graduating students to become future global leaders in the international field of infrastructure technology.

Tendering constitutes a formal offer to execute the contract work in accordance with the various contract documents for the contract price as quoted in BOQ. It usually includes the contract period within which the contractor is to complete the work.

The contractor is generally asked to enter into a bond whereby he provides to sureties who are prepared to pay upto 10-15% of the contract price if the contract is not carried out satisfactorily or a bank guarantee.


(Building and Works Departments)
Notice Inviting Tenders
1) Item/Percentage rate tender for the works details below are invited from;
a. The approved contractors of the ______________
b. The contractors enlisted with P.W.D / Building Department are also eligible. In case their tender is accepted, they will have to get themselves enlisted with the university.
2) The tender will be received at 11:30 a.m. on the date given below and will be opened at the same time and date in the presence of the contractors or their authorized agents.
3) No telegraphic tender or tender by post will be entertained.
4) No conditional tender will be entertained.
5) Detailed particulars of works can be obtained from the office of the undersigned on any working day during the office hours.
6) The undersigned reserves the right to reject any or all tenders without assigning any reason.
7) The tender from a firm or company should be accompanied with the power of attorney on judicial papers.
8) The tender documents can be obtained from the office of the undersigned during office hours on payment basis mentioned below.
9) No tender will be issued to any contractor on the date of receiving the tender.
Name of works

Name of Works
Estimated cost
Earnest money
Tender Fee
Time limit
Date receipt
Installation of
Rs. 8,30,766 /-
Rs. 16,615/-
Rs. 500/-
2 Months
Project Director

A tender is a submission made by a prospective supplier in response to an invitation to tender. It makes an offer for the supply of goods or services.

Invitation to Tender

The inviting of tenders for civil engineering works is usually performed by one of the following three choices.

i) By advertising for competitive tenders.  A typical tender notice is shown on next page.
ii) By inviting tenders from selected contractors. (approved or Prequalified) Enlistment of approved contractors is mainly on the basis of financial status and employment of some highly qualified engineers.

Depending upon financial status and cost of projects, approved contractors are divided into various categories. Enlistment is not for a particular work but it is general. Prequalification is for a particular large project depending upon factors as given in any example of prequalification Notice including reputation of contractor, financial stability, technical staff, machinery available, works already in hand and experience of similar works

iii) By negotiating a contract with a select contractor.  This procedure is adopted for well-reputed and previously experienced contractor.

Opening of Tenders

Tenders submitted by different parties should be under sealed covers and generally these are opened in the presence of tenderers or their representatives. Following procedure is adopted after opening of tenders.

i) List of tenders is prepared making sure that earnest money is also accompanied by each tender.
ii) Tenders without any earnest money shall not be considered in the competition.
iii) A comparative statement of the tenders is prepared. Rates are given by the tenderes for non-scheduled items and premium for scheduled items.
iv) Careful scrutiny (thorough checking) of all the tenders is a must to make sure that the tenders are properly signed and any corrections are erasures must be initialed by the tender.
v) As far as possible, the minimum tender must be accepted. But, in certain cases, if the minimum tender is very low as compared with the estimated cost of the work, it is liable to be rejected because in such cases the contractor is liable to use sub-standard materials and violate the specifications/conditions of the contract, and thereby cause un-necessary litigation (court affairs).
However, if the lowest tender/bid is very high as compared with the estimated cost of the work, again it is liable to be rejected because of the financial complications. Client must revise the estimate and must again invite the tenders after checking availability of funds and after obtaining fresh approval.

Final Award of Contract

After the tender is accepted, the contractor is asked to enter into a legal agreement with the client and to provide a further sum of 5 to 10% of the total cost of the work (normally 10%) inclusive of earnest which is known as security Deposit.
Before issuing any work order (order to start with the work), the contractor must deposit the security in the form of a bank guarantee or in cash. Otherwise, he must submit a performance bong and the security deposit is deducted from bills of completed works.
The following points must be considered before the final award of the contract.
a) Prequalification of the contractor processing the requisite experience.
b) Make sure that his present position on other works allows the staff and machinery to be available for this project. In other words, works already in hand of contractor with the time of their completion must be considered.
c) Reputation of the contractor in the market should be known.
d) General behavior and temperament (nature etc.) of the contractor should be observed.

This post is based on tendering process steps and what are various tendering process in construction and it will download the tendering process pdf and what are various types of tenders and how to explain tendering process flow chart and what are tendering process definition and how to explaintendering process explained and if available tendering process ppt to download.

The word “Contract” is derived from the Latin word “Contractum” meaning Drawn down. Contract consist of an agreement between two or more parties under certain terms and conditions whereby one party undertakes to execute works or to supply materials at specified rates and the other party undertakes to make necessary payments for the work completed by the first party.

A contract document consists of following types of papers:

1. Conditions of contract
2. Technical Specifications
3. Bill of Quantities or BOQ
4. Contract Drawings
5. Form of contract

Note: Language for all the documents should be exact , so that, later on the meaninings may not be  wrongly interpreted.

1. Conditions of Contract

Conditions of contract are classified into three categories.

i) General Conditions of contract

These conditions, in some form, are to be specified for nearly al types of the works. These define generally the terms under which the work is to be carried out like the relationship between the engineers, the contractor and the client, the powers of the engineers and the terms of payments etc. Various clauses dealing with contract laws are incorporated in the general conditions o the contract.

ii) Additional Conditions of the contract

These conditions are related to the type of project. Conditions left in general conditions of contract are specified in additional conditions of contract. These conditions generally differ from project to project and are mainly related with specifications to be used, ways of testing, start of work, and other relevant work.

iii) Special conditions of work

These include some information about the site and the work, provisions of facilities at the site, site office, availability of surveying instruments drawings and site order book (to note instructions from the engineer) at the site, sign boards, materials and machinery issued by the department, advances, and other related terms.
Note: all conditions or circumstances, which can give rise to a dispute later on, should be well settled in the contract agreement. These agreed solutions of various conditions become contract law.

2- Specifications

The specifications amplify (magnify) the information given in the contract drawings and the BOQ. These describe, in detail, the work to be executed under the contract and nature and quality of materials and workmanship. The specifications also give details of any special responsibilities to be borne by the contractor in addition to the general conditions of contract.

The use of a particular standard like British, American, European, etc. helps considerably in this respect. It ensures the use of good quality materials complying with the latest requirements prepared by expert technical committees representing Users, Produces, Research workers and other interested.

The practice is to use brief description in BOQ and to give more comprehensive and detailed information concerning the materials and workmanship etc. in the specifications.

Technical specifications are usually separately mentioned for;

i) Civil works -- Different standards
ii) Water Supply, Sewerage and Sanitary works ( called plumbing works for inside of the building) – Different standards
iii) Electrical installations ----WAPDA specifications
iv) Gas Works ----SUI Northern Gas (Limited Specifications)

3- Bill of Quantities

The BOQ consists of a schedule of items of works, to be carried out under the contract, with quantities entered against each item, the quantities being taken in accordance with the standard methods of measurement of civil works.
One of the primary functions of a BOQ is to provide a basis on which tenders can be obtained and when it is priced, it provides a comparison of various tenders received.
For a building, BOQs are given separately for each storey and separately for different types of works.
i) BOQ for civil works
ii) BOQ for public health engg. Works
iii) BOQ for electrical works
iv) BOQ for gas works

4- Contract Drawings

Contract drawings illustrate the details and scope of the works to be executed under the contract. They must be prepared in sufficient details to enable the contractor to satisfactorily price the BOQ. The contract drawings will be subsequently used when executing the works and may be supplemental by further detailed drawings as the work proceeds. Full description and explanatory notes should be entered on the drawings to avoid any sort of confusion.

6. Form of Tender (Formal Agreement) 

It constitutes a formal offer to execute the contract work in accordance with the various contract documents for the contract price as quoted in BOQ. It usually includes the contract period within which the contractor is to complete the work.
The contractor is generally asked to enter into a bond whereby he provides to sureties who are prepared to pay upto 10-15% of the contract price if the contract is not carried out satisfactorily or a bank guarantee.

Basically This post is written to tell you about contract documents pdf and what are basically contract documents consist of and how anyone can answer about contract documents definition and if there is available online what is contract documents ppt and how can we explain the contract documents in civil engineering and if available contract documents sample and how to enlist list of contract documents and how any one knows about construction contract documents definition. 

Saad Iqbal

{picture#} Hi there, I am Saad Iqbal from Pakistan - Founder of Iamcivilengineer. I am Currently Working in a Consultancy Firm as Junior Engineer and am a Passionate blogger and a Civil Engineer from UET Taxila, Pakistan. {facebook#} {twitter#} {google#} {pinterest#} {youtube#}


{picture#} Hi there, I am Saad Iqbal from Pakistan - Founder of Iamcivilengineer. I am Currently Working in a Consultancy Firm as Junior Engineer and am a Passionate blogger and a Civil Engineer from UET Taxila, Pakistan. {facebook#} {twitter#} {google#} {pinterest#} {youtube#}
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