Frame Structures are one of the mostly used type of structure system in the world including Homes, Plazas and even sky-scrappers. But the behavior of this frame structure is not easy to understand. For this recently a device have been made which will help the students to understand the behavior of the frame structures very easily.




Here you go enjoy the video.


The first edition of this popular book was published in August 1976. At that time, the book contained 25 chapters with 963 standard size pages, as compared with the 33 chapters and 1572 large sized pages in this 19th edition. Never, even in his dreams, the author thought at that time, that this book will become the ‘darling’ of the students and professionals dealing in irrigation and water resources subjects, and shall be followed by students from almost every engineering college. 


Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures


Today I am going to share with you a very famous and useful book for Irrigation Engineering Lovers. This book Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Santosh Kumar Garg in PDF form is presented to you. You can Download this book from here. If you have any questions about this book by Santosh Kumar Garg you can simply contact us. 

Author of the Book

Santosh Kumar Garg

Contents of the Book

1. Irrigation Techniques and Quality of Irrigation Water
2. Water Requirements of Crops
3. Canal Irrigation System
4. Sediment Transport and Design of Irrigation Channels
5. Lining of irrigation Canals and Economics of Lining
6. Reclaimation of Water-Logged and Saline Soils for Agricultural Purpose
7. Hydrology and Runoff Computations for Design of Hydraulic Structures across Rivers and Streams
8. Rivers, Their Behaviour, Control and Training
9. Diversion Head Works
10. Hydraulic Jump and Its usefulness in the design of Irrigation Structures
11. Theories of Seepage and Design of Weirs and Barrages
12. Canal Falls
13. Regulators Modules, and Miscellaneous Canal Structures
14. Cross Drainage Works
15. Construction of Culverts and Small Road Bridges Across Drains and Canals
16. Ground Water Hydrology and Construction of Wells and Tubewells
17. Dams in General and few Dams in Particular
18. Reservoirs and Planning for Dam Reservoirs
19. Design and Construction of Gravity Dams
20. Earthen Dams and Rock Fill Dams
21. Spillways, Energy Dissipators, and Spillway Gates
22. Types of Crest Gates
23. Outlet Works Through Dams and River Intakes
24. Pressure Conduits
25. Hydro-electric Power
26. River Navigation
27. Tank Irrigation
28. Arch and Buttress Dams
29. Irrigation Revenue Rates


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The aim of compiling this book has been to give a working knowledge of the important details of civil engineering, construction, materials used in civil engineering, including the source of raw materials, their characteristics, the process of manufacture, their defects, structures and uses in the industry, and the basics of surveying and leveling and several other major topics in civil engineering to all engineering students in a systematic way, the book is written in a clear and easy-to-read style, presenting fundamentals of surveying at a level that can be quickly grasped by a beginner. The Basic surveying topics deal with modern instruments such as total station, GPS and digital level,s reflecting modern field procedures.

Basic Civil Engineering by Satheesh Gopi


Basic Civil Engineering by Satheesh Gopi published by Pearson Publishers is one of the primary text book  for the course for Civil Engineers. The original text book may upto Rs.450 . The e-book/pdf for that is not easily available also. However a free PDF excerpt of Book whose preview is shown below. A free Solution manual is also available. Which surely help you students.



Title of the Book

Basic Civil Engineering

Author of the Book

Satheesh Gopi1

Contents of the Book


Part 1 – Materials for Construction
Chapter 1 Stones
Chapter 2 Sand
Chapter 3 Lime
Chapter 4 Cement
Chapter 5 Bricks
Chapter 6 Tiles
Chapter 7 Timber
Chapter 8 Steel
Chapter 9 Aluminum
Chapter 10 Paints and Varnishes
Chapter 11 Miscellaneous Building Materials
Part II Building Construction
Chapter 12 Components Parts of a Building
Chapter 13 Foundation
Chapter 14 Mortar
Chapter 15 Masonry Works
Chapter 16 Concrete
Chapter 17 Doors and Windows
Chapter 18 Roof
Chapter 19 Floors
Chapter 20 Stairs
Chapter 21 Plastering
Chapter 22 Painting
Chapter 23 Damp Proofing
Chapter 24 Building Services
Chapter 25 Building Maintenance
Part III – Basic Surveying
Chapter 26 Chain Surveying and Modernization in Land Surveying
Chapter 27 Levelling
Part IV – Other Major Topics in Civil Engineering
Chapter 28 – Environmental Engineering
Chapter 29 – Geotechnical Engineering
Chapter 30 – Transport, Traffic and Urban Engineering
Chapter 31 – Irrigation and Water Supply Engineering
Chapter 32 – Computer Aided Design (CAD)

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When building bridges, engineers and architects don’t always look for the shortest possible crossing. The new ring-shaped bridge across Laguna Garzon in Uruguay's southern coast is such an example.

The concrete structure consist of two semi-circular bridges, joined at either end to create a ring, and was built to replace a raft crossing between the cities of Rocha and Maldonado. On the bridge’s unusual circular design, its architect Rafael Viñoly has a perfectly logical and functional explanation: the curved design will force drivers to slow down the speed of their cars while also prove an opportunity to enjoy the panoramic views of this amazing landscape. The bridge also has a pair of pedestrian walkways.






Via : dezeen

Right of Way (ROW)is something that civil engineers work with a lot. It’s on virtually all of the surveys that we use. It’s a key point that must be known if you’re working on a project where private property meets public property. This is especially important when working on transportation projects for local governments. There are a lot of aspects to Right of Way and Right of Way Acquisition. I’m going to talk about it mainly from the transportation side.
What is Right of Way?



What is Right of Way?


Here’s an example of what Right of Way (ROW) is. A city owns a public street that goes through a residential neighborhood. They also own a few feet past the pavement on both sides of the street. If a residential street is 30-36 feet wide the city may own a total of 46-50+ feet wide area. So, yes they own part of your front yard. Virtually all public streets are like this, from local residential streets on up to interstate highways which may have ROWs that are hundreds of feet wide.


Why Right of Way


The government holds a right of way wider than the actual street for several reasons. They use the extra land for things like public sidewalks, utilities, or to widen the road in the future. Also, street lights, traffic signals and street parking are all in the ROW.

Right of Way is something that we have to know where is, but civil engineers don’t typically worry about why it’s where it is or how to get more. That sort of thing is typically handled by the government agency itself. Or was figured out when the property was first developed. Civil engineers don’t generally get more once an area is already developed.

However, I’ve had the privilege recently to work on a ROW acquisition project recently. That’s a service that our company offers, and my background in roadway design helped get me involved in a roadway ROW project.

The project


Here are the basics of the project. A two lane county road needed to be widened because of all of the development nearby. Plans were drawn up and the road was designed, but the county didn’t actually own enough land to make the road wider. That’s where we came in on the project. The county hired us to acquire the land for them.

What you have to do


There are several steps involved in ROW acquisition. I’m going to go over the broad steps. Perhaps at a later date I’ll write a more detailed article, or ask our resident expert to put one together for me.

Survey


It seems that everything in civil engineering begins with a survey. The same applies here. With the survey and the plans we can see exactly how much land is needed from each land owner. The surveyor provides documents showing exactly how much land is needed. They generally will also mark the area with flags or other markers.

Initial Letter


An initial letter is sent to the current land owner to let them know about the surveyors and appraisers coming onto their property. The letter also lets the owner know what’s going on with the project; the whys, the whos, etc.

Appraisals


Next the appraisers go to work. They appraise each plot of land that the government needs to buy. The appraisers generally will take into account mailboxes, fences, trees and anything else that may be in the proposed right of way area that current land owner would have to move or lose value if it’s removed.

Title Search


Just like when you buy any piece of property, you do a title search to find out who actually owns the land. This will also tell you about any liens on the property such as a mortgage, tax lien or unpaid debt. Any lien will affect the sale.

Offer Letters


Send the initial offer letter. Basically the offer is for what the appraiser valued the land at.

Negotiation


This can be real long or real short depending on what the land owner wants. I’ve seen some just sign the paperwork and send it back. Some think their land is worth more, some will want fences or custom mailboxes replaced, trees paid for, or many other things. Some just flat out refuse to sell. In most cases something can be worked out to the benefit of both the land owner and the municipality.

Partial Release of Lien


We do have to deal with any liens that are on the property. If there is a mortgage, for example, we have to get a partial release of lien. Basically the bank has to give up that part of the land on their deed. Lien holders may have the right to the money first. That varies some by location. Banks sometimes require a percentage of the money based on a percentage of the property sold.


Acceptance or Condemnation


Eventually, after the negotiations, the land owner accepts or they don’t. If they accept, then the paperwork is signed, they get their money and the government gets the land. If they are unwilling to sign, then it goes to condemnation. That means that it goes before a third party to decide the case. Generally when this happens the government gets the land and the land owner gets fair market value for their property. Because of the expense it really doesn’t do anybody any good to go to condemnation. As long as we follow the laws and our engineering ethics guidelines we are fine.

There is a lot more to it, but that covers the basic process. It is certainly a good thing to know, even if you never do ROW acquisition yourself. Having the knowledge gives you a better understanding of the process and what the municipality has to do on some projects. However, having the expertise can give your company another product to offer municipal clients.

This book titled “Civil Engineering Handbook by P.N. Khanna” has been complied primarily for the “Practical man” and should prove a most useful work of reference to the young engineers of various public works departments. The object of this volume is to give a fairly complete but concise account of the various subjects to serve as a ready reference for everyday-work problems which constantly con-front the engineers. Whether in the office or in the field, without having to wade through numerous books and notes. 



All possible efforts have been made to make the book comprehensive and complete by itself. Packed with as many details as possible. Elucidating in simple and plain language the engineering principles in sufficiently practicable and most easily applicable from free from advanced mathematics. 

Title of the Book 

Practical Civil Engineers' Handbook 

Author of the Book 

P. N. Khanna

Download the Book 



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Cement Concrete both Plain and Reinforced overlays are used as a rehabilitation technique for both existing Rigid and asphaltic pavements.  Concrete overlays have potential advantage over asphaltic overlays owing to :-
  • Extended service life
  • Increased structural capacity
  • Reduced maintenance requirements
  • Lower life-cycle costs



When compared with hot-mix asphalt overlay alternatives

Concrete overlays have been used to rehabilitate existing concrete pavements since 1913 and to rehabilitate existing asphalt pavements since 1918. 
Type of Concrete Overlays
The Concrete pavements as we know are of following three basic types :- 
1. Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements
2. Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavements
3. Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements

Although in theory any type of concrete pavement could be used for an overlay, in practice, jointed plain concrete pavement (with or without dowels) is by far the most common. 


Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement 


JPCP is a Plain cement concrete pavement system that have joints at shorter distances and does not have distributed reinforcing steel in the slab and may or may not have dowels. Maximum slab length is typically 20 ft (6 m). Undoweled or aggregate interlock joints are generally used for short slabs, thin slabs, or both. 
For most pavements, however, adequately sized dowels should be provided to reduce faulting. Dowel diameter is often selected based on slab thickness, but traffic may be a more important factor for consideration. 
For concrete overlays, the recommended number and spacing of dowels is the same as those for new pavements. In general uniform 12 in. 300 mm spacing is recommended but non-uniform dowel spacing design, the dowels are concentrated in the wheel paths 
In general, joints perpendicular to the direction of traffic are recommended. On new JPCP, skewed joints can be effective in reducing faulting on nondoweled pavements, but have no effect when used on properly doweled pavements. Futhermore, JPCP designs with skewed joints constructed on a stiff base (treated cement or lean concrete) are prone to corner breaks. 


Bonded
Partially bonded
Unbonded
Typical thickness
3 to 4 in. (75 to 100 mm)
6 to 8 in. (150 to 200 mm)
6 to 12 in. (150 to 300 mm)
How bonding condition is achieved
Cleaning and preparing surface
(such as shotblasting)
Possible application of bonding
agent
No special surface preparation
other than sweeping
Placement of a layer to separate
overlay from existing pavement
Condition of existing pavement
Relatively good condition
No materials-related distress
Fair to moderate condition
Fair to poor condition
Preoverlay repair
All deteriorated cracks, joints, and
punchouts
Most deteriorated cracks, joints,
and punchouts
Limited repair
Special design and construction
considerations
Achieving bond between two concrete
layers
Matching joints of overlay with
those in existing pavement
Matching joints of overlay with
those in existing pavement
Achieving separation between two
concrete layers
Mismatching joints of overlay with
those in existing pavement
Overlay types
JPCP
 JRCP
 CRCP
JPCP
JRCP
CRCP
JPCP
JRCP
CRCP


Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavements 

JRCP is a hydraulic cement concrete pavement system containing dowels, characterized by long joint spacings and distributed reinforcing steel in the slab to control crack widths. Slab lengths are generally more than 20 ft (6m)  and may be as much as 60 ft (18 m). Current pavement practice is away from JRCP designs, and construction is rare because the longer joint spacing results in more joint movement. When midslab cracks occur, the light reinforcing may not be enough to hold the cracks tightly. If JRCP is used, the recommended maximum joint spacing is 30 ft (9m). Deformed bars or deformed welded wire reinforcement are recommended at minimum steel content of 0.19 %. 


Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements 

CRCP, also known as continuous concrete pavement, is a pavement with uninterrupted longitudinal steel reinforcement and no intermediate transverse expansion or contraction joints. Reinforcement design for CRCP overlays is similar to that for new design. The recommended minimum steel content is 0.60%, and the use of deformed bars is strongly recommended (Darter et al. 1997). The depth of reinforcing steel has a significant effect on crack opening, and steel placement closer to the top surface may provide tighter cracks and better long-term performance (Dhamrait and Taylor 1979; Roman and Darter 1988). A minimum concrete cover of 2.5 in. (65 mm) is recommended for protection of the reinforcing steel against corrosion.

In Building Construction the Brick masonry construction is a time-taking job, especially when the walls are load bearing. The finishing work in Building Construction is comparatively more time-consuming then the construction of the skeletal structure.




Scientists have recently developed an automatic machine that can do the plastering work for you just in few minutes, Yeah !!! not in one day or a week or half of a day but in just minutes.

See below the stunning video of this adorable invention :-

Ever since its establishment in July 1989, XCMG has remained the leader of China's construction machinery industry. At present, XCMG ranks within the Top 5 of the global construction machinery industry, 119th in the top 500 enterprises in China, and 44th in the top 500 manufacturing companies in China. XCMG is the most competitive and influential enterprise in China's construction machinery industry, on the largest scale and with the most diverse series of products.



Recently XCMG has made a stunning Crane Model of ET110 the future of the cranes.

XCMG”s “Key technology development and industrialisation of an all-terrain crane”, in relation to its walking excavator ET110, won second prize in the National Award for Science and Technology Progress 2011 and 2010 (the industry’s first prize is vacant). XCMG was awarded the Achievement Award of National Enterprise Technology Center as judged by five ministries and commissions such as the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (MOST). In addition XCMG was rated as the first national technical innovation demonstration enterprise in Jiangsu Province.


Three-dimensional printing is a form of modern manufacturing technology, which goes to a large number of the leading plastic household items, toys and many other industry companies. We have seen in the past few days that a range of different tools in various industries have been made by its industry by these printers.



The latest achievements of these printers is to build a full house in all its minute detail using 3D printers, and this is what happened in China's Jiangsu province, and specifically in the industrial park, which was created a set of new houses by a huge 3D printers, exceed a height of 6 meters. One of these big houses up to five story high and wide, and equipped with all the details of a real home.

In order to ensure the strength of this construction, it has been providing printers with a mixture of different materials (such as glass, steel, cement, etc.). This is happening for the first time in the building that is fully home by these printers. This work is the advancement of a real revolution in the field of building and construction technology, but currently, this house cost at least 150 thousand countries.



3D printers work mechanism


The basic idea of ​​the mechanism of action of 3D printers in the formation of three-dimensional body, is the development of successive thin layers of a material on top of each other. The advantage of these printers is that they are usually faster and advantageous and easier to use than the other dedicated to the manufacture of technological devices. 



And it allows three-dimensional printers developers the ability to print complex installation overlapping parts, can also be parts of different materials and mechanical specifications manufacturer of various physical and then fitted with each other. Advanced technology to print three-dimensional models to produce identical copies in the required shape and texture.

Civil engineering is the loudest of the engineering’s – what civil engineers make is visible and can be seen, touched and lived-in by many for many years. We have seen some amazing marvels of civil engineering in past and we continue to come across amazing civil engineering projects everyday. However, here are some civil engineering fails that will leave you baffled. Construction fail Compilation




Winter is now in full effect, and that means extra caution is to be taken. Inclement weather conditions are not a force to be reckoned with, especially when it comes to the road. The US Department of Transportation points out that from 2004 to 2013, icy roads are about 3% of car crashes. Now if you are are thinking to yourself, “well 3% isn’t that terrible,” realize that 3% is still over 151 thousand collisions per year (on average), all because of frozen water on treaded ground. Well scientists are doing their best to counter this by formulating a compound that may slow down the process of this physical change of water into ice and thus dramatically reduce these car accidents.

[Image source: Geograph]


Recently a team from Koç University in Turkey discovered a cocktail of compounds that may help drivers on the road regain control of their vehicles rather than handing the wheel over the less merciful mother nature. 

Using salt potassium formate as a base, the scientists combined in a styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer and joined the compounds to bitumen – the principle element of asphalt.

They found that the mixture of chemicals created an asphalt that slowed down the formation of ice considerably, while also not sacrificing the sturdiness of the road.

Currently, to combat slippery icy roads state officials spread salt over the roads but this technique can be futile as it washes off with ease, forcing reapplications while other anti-icing agents pose as potential threat to the environment with their harmful chemicals. However this method of mixing these agent into the asphalt sustain safety for longer amounts of time (potentially years on active roads) while not harming the environment.

The photo below compares new asphalt composites to old, the new compound (right) slows down the development of ice and you can view there is less ice collected on the surface, where the conventional materials (left) have already collected some icy formation.
Comparison of Traditional asphalt (left side) with New made asphalt (right Side)


Source:- 

Mixing of concrete is a very important step as the final finish quality depends on it. Effective use of vibrator and screed depends only on how good or bad the mixing quality of the fresh concrete is. In this regard here are some important points and tips which every civil engineer must know in order to get a very excellent and outstanding concrete mix.

source: http://www.condell-ltd.com/Page.aspx?catid=120


ADDING 4 LITERS OF WATER TO 1 CUBIC METER OF FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE WILL:

Increase slump about 25 mm.
Decrease compressive strength about 1.5 to 2 N/mm2.
Increase shrinkage potential about 10%.


IF TEMPERATURE OF FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE IS INCREASED BY 1 DEGREE CELSIUS:

Add about 4 litres of water per cubic meter maintains equal slump.
Air content decreases about 1%.
Compressive strength decreases about 1.0 to 1.5 N/mm2.

IF THE AIR CONTENT OF FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE:

Increases 1% then compressive strength decreases about 0.5%.
Decreases 1% then yield will decrease about 0.03 cubic meter per 1 cubic meter.
Decreases 1% then slump decreases about 12.5mm.
Decreases 1% then durability decreases about 10%.

Source: - http://www.cegyan.com/

Keywords


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Civil Engineers has to face alot of problems in field, but a good civil engineers is that who know how to tackle and face such problems.

Here is an example of such a civil engineer who has use power showel to pour concrete when no concrete pump was around to pour concrete.



Dont forget to hit like and share please.

I am glad to present the book entitled “A textbook of Strength of Materials” to the engineering students of mechanical, civil, electrical, aeronautical and chemical and also to the students of A.M.I.E. examination of Engineering (India). The course-contents have been planned in such a way that the general requirements of all engineering students are fulfilled. 

During may long experience of teaching to the engineering students for the past 20 years. I have observed that the students face difficulty in understanding clearly the basic principles, fundamental concepts and theory without adequate solved problems along with text. To meet this very basic requirement to the students, a large number of the questions taken from examination of various universities and from other professional and competitive examinations have been solved along with the text. 



The book is written in simple and easy-to-follow language, so that even an average students can grasp the subject by self-study. At the end of each chapter highlights, theoretical questions and many unsolved numerical problems with answer are given for the students to solve them. 

Title of the Book


A textbook of Strength of Materials 

Author of Book

Dr. R.K. Bansal

Contents


  1. Simple Stress and Strain
  2. Elastic Constants
  3. Principle stresses and strains
  4. Strain energy and impact loading
  5. Center of gravity and moment of inertia
  6. Shear force and bending moment
  7. Bending stresses in beams
  8. Shear stresses in beams
  9. Direct and bending stresses
  10. Dams and retaining walls
  11. Analysis of perfect frames
  12. Deflection of beams
  13. Deflection of cantilever
  14. Conjugate beam method, propped cantilevers and beams
  15. Fixed and continuous beams
  16. Torsion of shafts and springs
  17. Thin cylinders and spheres
  18. Thick cylinders and spheres
  19. Columns and struts
  20. Riveted joints
  21. Welded joints
  22. Rotating discs and cylinder
  23. Bending of curved beams
  24. Theories of failures
  25. Objective type questions

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Keywords

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