A series of steps must be followed to obtain a satisfactory design.



STEP 1: SELECT PRELIMINARY PROPORTIONS OF THE WALL.
STEP 2: DETERMINE LOADS AND EARTH PRESSURES.
STEP 3: CALCULATE MAGNITUDE OF REACTION FORCES ON BASE.
STEP 4: CHECK STABILITY AND SAFETY CRITERIA
a. Location of normal component of reactions.
b. Adequacy of bearing pressure.
c. Safety against sliding.
STEP 5: REVISE PROPORTIONS OF WALL AND REPEAT STEPS 2-4 UNTIL
STABILITY CRITERIA IS SATISFIED AND THEN CHECK
a. Settlement within tolerable limits.
b. Safety against deep-seated foundation failure.
STEP 6: IF PROPORTIONS BECOME UNRESONABLE,CONSIDER A
FOUNDATION SUPPORTED ON DRIVEN PILES OR DRILLED SHAFTS.
STEP 7: COMPARE ECONOMICS OF COMPLETED DESIGN WITH OTHER
SYSTEMS.

Tohid Tunnel is a tunnel in Tehran, Iran. It is about 3 km long.it is the third longest urban tunnel in middle east. it has also broken the record of construction to be opened in less than 30 months. it is interior technical design has met the highest safety licences.

It includes installation of utilities equipment in the Tunnel, and manufacture and mobilization of north and south fans combined ventilation equipment, and control building and Niyayesh shaft.
70 jet fans, each powered at 30 KW. 




North fan combined ventilation equipment: 3 axial fans, powered at 600 KW. Niyayesh fan combined ventilation equipment: 2 axial fans (to let in fresh air into Tunnel) powered at 410 KW. 4 axial fans (to let out exhaust air from Tunnel) powered at 500 KW. 

South portal fan combined ventilation equipment: 3 axial fans powered at 990 KW. Air washing system at the air entering Niyayesh fans. Total number of lights in the Tunnel: 1,064 lights powered at 550 KW. Length of cables for the utilities: 220 km. 




Special and standby power generators (in case of a power cut in Tehran Power Grid, the lighting system of the Tunnel fed by these generators will be automatically switched on and the power will be compensated). Smart firefighting system. Traffic alarms. Intercom telephones. Closed-Circuit TV. Vehicles counter. Road closing system. Traffic signs. 

Thermal sensors. Air pollution sensors and other facilities. Tunnel Drainage System Towheed drainage system operates by various channels. The surface water accumulated around and the Tunnel will be drained into the canals installed along the Tunnel wall, and will enter into a channel which is installed exactly in the middle of both twin tunnels. 

The drained water will be conveyed through the latter channel to the south part of the Tunnel, and it will be carried away from the Tunnel by some kanats.

The guniting is the most effective process of repairing concrete work which has been damaged due to inferior work or other reasons. It is also used for providing an impervious layer.
The gunite is a mixture of cement and sand, the usual proportion being 1:3. A cement gun is used to deposit this mixture on the concrete surface under a pressure of about 20 to 30 N/cm2.


Shotcrete is concrete (or sometimes mortar) conveyed through a hose and pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a surface, as a construction technique. It is reinforced by conventional steel rods, steel mesh, and/or fibers. Fiber reinforcement (steel or synthetic) is also used for stabilization in applications such as slopes or tunneling

Shotcrete is usually an all-inclusive term for both the wet-mix and dry-mix versions. In pool construction, however, the term "shotcrete" refers to wet-mix and "gunite" to dry-mix. In this context, these terms are not interchangeable

Shotcrete is placed and compacted at the same time, due to the force with which it leaves the nozzle. It can be sprayed onto any type or shape of surface, including vertical or overhead areas.

It is a simple presentation that explains briefly about the purification of water by chlorination.There are many advantages as well as some disadvantages of the process of chlorination and the same is discussed in this presentation.

Some of the advantages includes;



1.Chlorine is cheap leads to purification process economical.
2. Reliable source, kills almost all gastrointestinal bacteria.

and there are also many others; Download the presentation to get the ppt.



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After the successful execution of Lahore Metro Bus Project, Pakistan is going to launch a Mass Rapid Transit Train system first time in Pakistan at Lahore with the name of “Lahore Orange Line Metro Train Project”. Estimated 27.1 Km track will facilitate more than 250 thousand passengers. The route of the train comprises both of elevated and underground track that will not only enhance its beauty but also will uplift the architectural beauty of the city.





The project is expected to be completed within 27 months and Chinese Government will fully finance the project as a part of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

The estimated worth of the project is 1.6 billion us dollars which is a huge amount from local point of view.

Advertisement of the Project

Out of 27.1 Km track 25.4 Km track is elevated. While talking with Media Shahbaz Sharif Chief Minister Pakistan was of opinion that the metro train would also be run in other cities after Lahore. Metro train will revolutionize the way people travel as it will make the commute trouble-free.
The project consists of 26 stations, 24 of which are elevated at remaining are underground.

Replacement of 121 years old Khanki Headworks with a new barrage is planned to increase agricultural production by 10 per cent in eight districts of central Punjab, and also to ensure sustainable irrigation supplies to the area.

Client

Punjab Irrigation Department, Govt. of Punjab

Location

Wazirabad Tehsil of Gujranwala district in Punjab Pakistan about 52 km d/s od Marala barrage and 32km u/s of Qadirabad barrage Punjab
Approx. value of the services provided by firm under the contract (PKR)
Rs. 201 Million

Start Date

January, 2013

End Date

January, 2018

Scope of the project

Design Review and Construction Supervision of New Khanki Barrage.


A new Khanki Barrage is being constructed adjacent to the old Khanki Headworks located at River Chenab in Tehsil Wazirabad of Gujranwala district. Replacement is initiated due to ageing effect, flood passage constraints, lack of effective control on river regulation etc. Objective of construction of new barrage is to replace existing 121 years old headworks (1892) with new barrage, enhancing flood passage capacity of eight lakh cusecs to 11 lakh cusecs. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is funding the new barrage project with $270 million loan against PC-1 cost Rs23,442 million while remaining amount would be given by the Punjab government. So far agreed ADB funding is around 87% while 13 % of total cost of the project would be ensured by the government of Punjab. Primary beneficiaries of the project will be 568000 farming families in the Lower Chenab Canal (LCC) command area who will be ensured of reliable irrigation supplies. Average farm size in the canal command is 6.5 acres. A total of almost two million people will benefit from the construction of New Khanki Barrage project either directly or indirectly. Concrete work at the project site will start soon but after the completion of dewatering and excavation at the work site. And, a joint venture (JV) of various consultancy firms will soon provide drawing to start concrete work as they are engaged to supervise the construction work of the project.



These details were shared by the officials of Irrigation Department of Punjab (PMO Punjab Barrages), JV of consultants and representatives of contractor with a group of journalists that are on ADB Press Tour at the project site. The ADB has approved a soft loan of 270 million for constructing this project. The new Khanki Barrage on River Chenab in central Punjab will replace the existing headwork built in 1892. The condition of this vital headwork has deteriorated over the years, threatening the water supply to a large area of irrigated plains in Punjab, which is considered to be the country’s bread basket. The existing Khani Headwork is running at high risk and can cause loss of several crop seasons, if failed. Deteriorated irrigation infrastructure causes unreliable irrigation services and high risks of its failure. Farmers adapted groundwater pumping for irrigation, which is causing saline-water intrusioin and land degradation. The ADB’s natural resources sector report 2006 for Pakistan evaluated the water resources and irrigation rehabilitation as a core part of its lending portfolio.



The sector road map emphasizes that both the physical and non-physical improvements are keys to the sustained irrigated agriculture and reduction of rural poverty in Punjab. Giving presentation to journalists, chief engineer of the project Syed Mahmood Ul Hassan said that the New Khanki Barrage will reliably divert 11653 cusecs of irrigation supplies to the downstream LCC irrigating 1.2 million hectors. On the basis of feasibility and detailed design studies, New Khanki barrage is proposed 900ft downstream of existing headquarters for which a project costing Rs23.442 billion was prepared and got approved from ECNEC. He claimed that it plays a pivotal role in the irrigated agriculture of Punjab province which is the backbone of national economy. According to the project official, the impact of the project will be the improved agricultural production and farm income in LCC command areas. The impacts will be measured by 10 per cent increase in the agriculture production and 10 per cent increase in farm income of 25000 families. The project will also ensure reliable water supply and stability of crop yield, further improvement of crop production are expected from the LCC on-going reforms and other interventions.



The project is designed using the state-of-the-art techniques and is being implemented through international contract following ADB guidelines. Civil works have already commenced in 2013and the completion period is five years. Implementation of the project will ensure sustainable irrigation supplies to the command area for the next 100 years and it will help in alleviating poverty and brining prosperity to the districts Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahib, Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh and Jhang. Irrigation Department Punjab (IDP), being custodian of the major hydraulic structures, has taken up rehabilitation and modernization of barrages located in the province in phased programs.



The construction of new barrage will save the canal network of 2925 channels (4680 kilometers), which will irrigate more than 3.301 million acres of the above eight districts. To replace the existing 120 years old Headworks with new barrage will enhance flood passage capacity from 800000 to 1100000 cusecs.

This book is  intended to  guide practicing structural engineers familiar with ear-lier ACI building codes  into more profitable routine designs with the ACI  1995 Building Code (ACI 318-95). Each  new  ACI  Building  Code  expresses  the  latest  knowledge  of reinforced concrete in  legal  language  for  safe design  application.  Beginning in  1956 with the  introduction  of ultimate  strength  design,  each  new  code  offered  better  utilization of high-strength reinforcement and the compressive strength of the concrete  itself.




Each  new  code  thus  permitted  more  economy  as  to  construction material, but achieved it through more detailed and complicated design calculations.  In  addition  to  competition  requiring  independent  structural  engineers  to follow  the  latest code  for  economy,  it  created  a professional  obligation  to  fol-low the  latest code  for  accepted levels  of structural safety.

"This book will guide the user to the various sections of the Code pertinent to design of common reinforced concrete structural elements"
The increasing complexity of codes has encouraged the use of computers for design  and has  stimulated  the  development  of computer-based  handbooks. Before  computer  software  can  be  successfully  used  in  the  structural  design  of buildings,  preliminary  sizes  of structural  elements  must  be  established  from handbook tables,  estimates,  or experienced first  guesses  for  input into the  com-puter. This book will guide the user to the  various sections of the Code pertinent to design  of common reinforced  concrete structural elements.  A  brief explanation of the significance of these sections is presented,  together with limits  of applic-ability,  the  range  in  which  results  may  control  design;  and,  where  possible, design short cuts to ensure automatic conformance to the Code without calculations.

This  Guide  does  not  duplicate  nor  replace  the  ACI  Code,  its  Commentary, design handbooks, or use of computers. It complements the ACI Code and Com-mentary,  shows how to take full  advantage of available handbooks based on the Code, and should shorten time to develop computer design programs. It converts some  code formulas  from  the  review  form  (or trial  designs)  to  direct  design.

It presents some simple appropriate  formulas,  tabulations,  and charts for conserv-ative  longhand direct design. Specifications  for  materials  and  special  Code  requirements  superimposed upon  the  ASTM  Specifications  for  materials  are  explained  to  aid  the  structural engineer to  avoid difficulties  with  use of obsolete specifications.

Title of the Book

Structural Design Guide to ACI Code
Fourth Edition
Authors

Edward S. Hoffman
David P. Gutafson
Alber J. Gouwens

Contents of the Book

1.       Structural Materials, Specifications and Testing
2.       Structural Analysis and Design – General
3.       One-way Reinforced Concrete Slabs
4.       One-way Joist Systems
5.       Two-way Solid Flat Plate Design
6.       Two-way Solid Flat Slab Design
7.       Two-way Waffle Flat Slab Design
8.       Two –way Slab-beam Design
9.       Beam and Girders
10.   Columns
11.   Walls
12.   Footings
13.   Splices and Details of Reinforcement
14.   Prestressed Concrete
15.   Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete
16.   Structural Plain Concrete
17.   Field Inspection and Construction
18.   Strength Evaluation of Existing Structures.

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Applications are required to submit Online Application forms by the closing date which is 4-5-2015. Candidates should fill the online form carefully for which detailed guidelines and instructions have been given on Punjab Public Service Commission’s Website www.ppsc.gop.pk. Editing options, to correct any data will be available to the candidates till the last date of submittion.
Candidates will have to deposit Rs. 300 /-



No of posts = 27 

Assistant Engineer (Civil) (BS-17) In the Communication and Works Department. 

Degree in Engineering in requisite discipline from a recognized university or an equivalent qualification and except in a case where section 28 (b) of the Pakistan Engineering Council Act, 1976 (V of 1976) applies registration as a professional engineer with Pakistan Engineering Council.
Note: Valid Registration certificate from Pakistan Engineering Council is essential.

Age: 21 to 30 years on 4-5-2015
Pay : BS-17
Domicile : Punjab
Gender: Male, Female & Shemale
Place of posting: Anywhere in Punjab

Syllabus of Written Test:

one paper Written Test of MCQs type of 100 Marks, related to prescribed qualification (Civil Engineering)

For more information go to Ppsc.gop.pk

A transportation system may be defined as consisting of the fixed facilities, the flow entities, and the control system that permit people and goods  to overcome the friction  of geographical space efficiently in  order to participate in a timely manner in  some desired activity. 


At first glance this definition may appear to be either trivial or pretentious.
"It identifies the functional components of a transportation system "
After all,
 "overcoming the friction of geographic space"* 
is a very awkward way of saying "to move from point A to point B"! However, this definition reveals the breadth of transportation engineering and delineates the purpose and scope of this introductory text.

 It identifies the functional components of a transportation system (i.e., the fixed facilities, the flow  entities, and the control system) and encapsulates the fact that transportation provides the connectivity that facilitates other societal interactions•.

Title of the Book

Transportation Engineering and Planning 
3rd Edition 

Authors of the Book

C.C. Papacostas
P.D. Prevedouros

Contents of the Book

Introduction and Background
Design and Operation
Traffic Stream Flow Models
Capacity and Level of Service Analysis
Transportation Systems
Urban and Intelligent Transportation Systems
Transportation Planning
Travel-Demand Forecasting
Traffic Impact and Parking Studies
Air Quality, Noise, and Energy Impacts
Evaluation and Choice
Elements of Engineering Economy
Probability and Statics
Queuing and Simulation
Transportation Software

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This video describes methods and steps that must be taken to repair and cracked and deflected slab. The steps include supporting existing slab repairing the cracks with grout and then chipping existing surface on which new dowels are drilled and new non-shrink grout is being poured.



Video of the Method

You can unblock and watch the video by just liking the link or sharing it. 






The purpose of this book is to provide background information and criteria that can be used as a guide to the improvement of existing design procedures and specifications for bolted and riveted joints. To achieve this goal, extensive research work performed in the United States, Canada, Australia, Germany, the Nether-lands, England, Norway, Japan, and elsewhere was reviewed.  


"The major emphasis was placed on the behavior of structural joints connected by ASTM A325 or A490 high-strength bolts"
Among the criteria considered as a basis for design was an evaluation of the load versus deformation characteristics of the component parts of the joint. 

The major emphasis was placed on the behavior of structural joints connected by ASTM A325 or A490 high-strength bolts. The joint materials considered ranged from structural carbon steel with a specified yield stress between 33 and 36 ksi (227 and 248 MPa) to quenched and tempered alloy steel with a yield stress ranging from 90 to 100 ksi (620 to 689 MPa).   The different types of fasteners, connections, loading conditions, and design 
" Special types of joints such as truss-type connections, shingle joints, beam or girder splices, and beam-to-column connections are discussed in subsequent chapters"

procedures are discussed briefly in the first two chapters.   Chapters 3 and 4 deal with the behavior of individual fasteners under various loading conditions.  Chapter 5 describes the behavior, analysis, and design of symmetric butt splices.   Special types of joints such as truss-type connections, shingle joints, beam or girder splices, and beam-to-column connections are discussed in subsequent chapters.   
Title of the Book


Title of Book

Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints
Second Edition


Author of Book


Geoffrey L. Kulak
John W. Fisher
John H. A. Struik

Contents of the Book


Introduction
General Provisions
Rivets
Bolts 
Symmetric Butt Splices
Truss-Type Connections
Shingle Joints
Lap Joints
Oversize and Slotted Holes
Filler Plates between Surfaces
Alignment of holes
Surface Coatings
Eccentrically Loaded Joints
Combination Joints
Gusset Pleates
Beam and Girder Splices
Tension – Type Connections
Beam to Column Connections


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Saad Iqbal

{picture#https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-XZIy9ZMfPN8/Un4OZ_kOBrI/AAAAAAAAAMU/mGCOrK2TE7g/s320/1467370_565639096843077_167871782_n+-+Copy.jpg} Hi there, I am Saad Iqbal from Pakistan - Founder of Iamcivilengineer. I am Currently Working in a Consultancy Firm as Junior Engineer and am a Passionate blogger and a Civil Engineer from UET Taxila, Pakistan. {facebook#http://facebook.com/imsharing} {twitter#https://www.twitter.com/iamcivilengg} {google#https://plus.google.com/u/0/107498623703455203528} {pinterest#https://www.pinterest.com/iamcivilengg/civil-engineering-iamcivilengineercom/} {youtube#https://www.youtube.com/user/imsharingdottk}

Iamcivilengineer

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