The interest in seismic stratigraphic techniques to interpret seismic datasets is expanding continuously. The advent of sophisticated subsurface reservoir studies and 4D monitoring, for optimizing the hydrocarbon production in existing fields, do demonstrate the importance of the 3D seismic methodology. 

The added value of reflection seismic has clearly been proven in the last decades and it was especially beneficial on the petroleum development side. Seismic reflection profiles form a vast and solid data source of information on the structure of the subsurface. The seismic dataset gets nowadays explored in ever greater detail. These kind of investigations provide a vital tool for delineation of subtle hydro-carbon traps and are essential in regional basin analysis. 

The big advantage of seismic stratigraphy in basin studies lies in the fact that the methodology combines two very different scales of observation: the seismic and well-control approach. This explains why many work-ers are using seismic stratigrahic principles to evaluate their seismic observations. 

Name of the Book

Handbook of Geophysical Exploration
Seismic Exploration
Seismic Stratigraphy, Basin Analysis and Reservoir Characterization

Author of the Book

P.C.H. Veeken

Contents of the Book

The Seismic Reflection Method and Some of Its Constraints
Seismic Stratigraphic Techniques
Dynamics of Basinwide Sedimentation Patterns and sealevel Changes
Hydrocarbon Habit
Seismic Reservoir Characterisation
Volumetrics and Prospect Evaluaton
Concluding Remarks

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This document is a report with worked examples summarizing the general rules, basic design principles and design methods for geotechnical design following Eurocodes. It comprises an overview of Eurocode 7 with focus on the design requirements, actions and design situations, and limit states.

Different aspects to be considered for designing shallow foundations, gravity walls, embedded walls and deep foundations are covered in the report. The provisions of Eurocode 7 for ground investigations and testing for geotechnical design, overall stability of and movements in the ground, slopes, hydraulic failure modes and verifications against them are also presented. The Annex contains worked examples to accompany the various chapters of this report.

The materials were prepared and presented at the workshop “Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design” held on 13-14 June 2013 in Dublin, Ireland. The workshop was organized by JRC with the support of DG ENTR and CEN, and in collaboration with CEN/TC250/Sub-Committee 7 and Ireland’s Department of the Environment, Community and Local government.

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Marafie foundation is a multinational firm striving for the betterment in health sector in Asian countries including Kuwait, Iraq, Pakistan, India and several others. Founded by Mohammad Rafie, Marafie foundation have build several hospital complexes that are equipped with state of the art medical technologies.

Recently Marafie foundation have planned to construct a multistoried 80 bedded Kuwait Medical Center in Skardu having covered area of approximate 48,000 sft. The complex is designed by M/S Naqvi & Siddiquie, Architects and Engineers, Islamabad.

Marafie foundation Islamabad, is now tendering the project and applications are invited from contractors registered with Pakistan Engineering Council under category C-2 with 10 years experience. The last date for tender application is 15th April, 2015

From the beginning of times, sky kissing mountains and cliffs, height of hundreds feet has always made humans tempted for exploration and overshadow such great heights. From ancient times, humans, if tempted to try flying like birds, were also exited to reach highest spots of the world’s mountains to satisfy the natural thirst of power, thus they says that he is not a human who can sit idle without trying to overpower nature. 

Introduction of Caminito Del Ray

Lets try looking at the Mountain in spain. This mountain range is situated in El Chorro of Malaga province near Gushan River. In the start of twentieth century, a Dam and a hydro-electric plant was built near this mountain range. But workers of the power plant has to face many difficulties while reaching the plant and different operating machineries. The worst difficulties come for machineries when plant is to be repaired or during maintenance work. Especially the absence of the way to move from one mountain to other was main issue. Crossing this path is a very dangerous and life threatening experience.   

Workers often have to face accidents. Other difficulties are also there, moving machinery across this mountain range is not easy along with heavy loaded luggage. 

In order to find solution, Civil Engineers started thinking and planning a feasible solution and different options were derived. Engineers were of opinion that Vertical cliffs must have a way that can reduce the distance between cliffs and also help movement. 

The opinion was valid one, but to build such a path you need to threaten your life, hundreds of thousands of feet and then working with knowing that zero percent survival chance exists working over there. 

Constructing a path on vertical cliff over 300 feet was a dream, but planners and engineers have started their work with courage and bravery. Construction started in the early days of 1901. Iron rods were fixed over high rise sky kissing mountains then the wooden blocks and wooden planks were fixed covered with iron wires to make the path safe. The construction work completed in 5 years and opened as a symbol of human bravery and courage. 


The path is world’s most dangerous and precarious one. Path is 1 meter wide and 330 meter high and is three kilometer long. The path is world’s highest path for pedestrians. In 1921 King of Spain Alfnsusa azdahum has inaugurated the path by walking himself and launched Dal Guandalhorve Dem. The name of path is Caminito Del Ray but due to association with the King it is popularly called as King’s Little Pathway. Today still the path is famous with this name. The major significance of this path is the natural serene beauty and heart touching greenery. 

When a tourist steps on those wooden planks of Caminito Del Ray, he is about to experience a new world. But to preserve the images of such a beautiful path, one must process a heart of lion. Many brave men failed to look below while crossing the way. 

This is the reason tourists were directed not to look below; but such passionate, adventure loving and brave tourists didn’t listen to such words. Women have also been among the tourists. Shooting of many films have also been conducted over this spot. 

Rehabilitation Works

As the path was not maintained properly, the wear and tear of the tourists have resulted in to 5 humans losing their lives around 1999 to 2000 and thus the path was banned for tourists. 
Now after many years of hard work by the local authority the path is opened once again with safe and preventory measures. The rehabilitation works worth more than 1.6 Million pounds. Its improvement, rehabilitation and maintenance works now claims to be less prone to accidents or mishaps. 

The rehabilitation work that started by 2014 have now completed. On 15th March, 2015 group of Journalists round from the world have visited the place. The booking is now started and uptill now 33 thousand tourists have made their bookings. 

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An estimate of the cost of a construction job is the probable cost of that job as computed from plans and specifications.

For a good estimate the, actual cost of the proposed work after completion should not differ by more then 5 to 10 % from its approximate cost estimate, provided there are no unusual, unforeseen circumstances.


Estimation is the scientific way of working out the approximate cost of an engineering project before execution of the work.

It is totally different from calculation of the exact cost after completion of the project.
Estimation requires a thorough Knowledge of the construction procedures and cost of materials & labour in addition to the skill , experience, foresight and good judgment.



1.  It help to work out the approximate cost of the project in order to decide its feasibility with respect to the cost and to ensure the financial resources, if the proposal is approved.

Requirement of Material

2.  Requirements of controlled materials, such as cement and steel can be estimated for making applications to the controlling authorities.

Calculate Cost 

3. It is used for framing the tenders for the works and to check contractor’s work during and after its execution for the purpose of making payments to the contractor.

Planning and Scheduling

4. From quantities of different items of work calculated in detailed estimation, resources are allocated to different activities of the project and ultimately their durations and whole planning and scheduling of the project is carried out.

“Necessity is the mother of invention” – The quote that explains the reason why inventions exists around us. Most of the houses are build with bricks, the bricks a unit construction entity that makes up the building from sub-structure to superstructure. The cost of bricks owns a major share in the cost of the building. Most of the deprived areas here in India have not enough resources to build their own homes.

In such a situation three civil engineering friends of Lucknow; Sandeep Yadav, Suyash Agnihotri and Shiyam Gupta, graduates of Sri Ram Swaroop Engineering College have developed bricks from slush and fly-ash.
They have patented a method to generate bricks using waste material like sludge generated by Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP) and fly ash. The cost of such a brick is only 64 paise.

The research have been published in International Journal of Advancements in Research and Technology (IJRAT). Moreover they have also received a patent for their invention.


Affordable housing has become a distant dream not only for the economically weaker section and low income group, but for also a large cross section of middle income groups. "Not only cost-effective, it is also environment friendly. STP sludge which is available free of cost was recycled and mixed with fly ash. The combination brought down the cost of brick to five times less,'' said Sandeep.

Sludge Generation

Suyash said incorporation of STP sludge into brick will also solve the issue of its disposal. The sludge generated in most of the treatment systems around the world is discharged into the nearest watercourse, which is becoming less acceptable. This leads to accumulative rise of aluminum concentration in water, aquatic organisms, and consequently in human bodies. Some researchers have linked aluminum's contributory influence to Alzheimer's disease mental retardation and common effects of heavy metals accumulation.

Among all disposal options, the use of sludge in producing constructional elements is considered most economic and environmentally sound option, explained Suyash. "Bricks formed using our method have adequate crushing strength, hardness and water absorption,'' he said, adding that STP sludge brick is extremely close to brick clay in chemical composition.

Making Of The Brick 

I. SLUDGE | Sludge refers to residual, semi-solid material left from industrial wastewater, or sewage treatment processes. It can also refer to the settled suspension obtained from conventional drinking water treatment, and numerous other industrial processes.

Sewerage Treatmenet Plant

II. FLY ASH | Fly ash, also known as flue-ash, is one of the residues generated in combustion and comprises fine particles that rise with the flue gases. Ash which does not rise is termed bottom ash. In an industrial context, fly ash usually refers to ash produced during combustion of coal.


Students collected sludge from Daulatganj STP, Lucknow and flyash was taken from NTPC, Unchahar, Rae Bareli. STP sludge was crushed into a power form. It was then sieved from a 75-micron sieve to finely divide sludge particles. Then sludge was mixed with fly ash. This paste was filled in a brick mould and compacted. The raw brick was taken out of the mould and kept in sunlight for 

Abu Dhabi's Urban Planning Council approved 76 projects and masterplans in 2014, including a couple of major new developments in Al Ain and Al Gharbia.

In Al Ain, it approved plans for an African safari experience, World Desert Oasis, which is a 10.9 million m2 tourist attraction that will be built around Al Ain's recently-upgraded zoo. It will include a safari park, botanical gardens and an amphitheatre.

A new masterplan for industrial parks around Al Ain International Airport has also been approved, alongside a 3.8 million m2 residential and commercial units under the Wahat Al Zaweya masterplan.
Meanwhile, in Al Gharbia (Western Region) schemes approved include phase one of Al Wajeha Al Bahria - a mixed-use watertfront development in Mirfa City. It will be made up of four buildings containing retail units, 126 apartments and 10 villas.

A new town centre was approved for the centre of Ghayathi City containing office, retail, residential space and a cinema under a scheme called Al Hai Al Tejari.

Meanwhile, in Abu Dhabi city, a new concept plan for Al Maryah Island containing Gulf Related's Al Maryah Central and Farglory's Maryah Plaza was approved, alongside the 29-storey M Tower and the Al Qurm View projects on neighbouring Reem Island. Plans for a new Yas Island Beach Club were also given the green light.

This manual is intended to be a guide for Bridge Designers and others involved with bridge design for the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). It contains design details and methods that have been standardized and it interprets the intent of specifications. It is not intended to govern design in unusual situations nor to unduly inhibit the designer in the exercise of engineering judgment. There is no substitute for good judgment. The following axioms are given as a reminder that simple things make a big difference.

1. Gravity always works — if something is not supported, it will fall.
2. A chain reaction will cause small failures to become big failures, unless alternate load paths are available in the structure (i.e., progressive collapse).
3. Small errors, such as a drafting error or a misplaced decimal, can cause large failures.
4. Vigilance is needed to avoid small errors. This applies to construction inspection as well as in the design phase.
5. A construction job should be run by one person with authority, not a committee. It has been said that a camel is a horse designed and built by a committee.
6. High quality craftsmanship must be provided by everyone.
7. An unbuildable design is not buildable. An obvious fact often overlooked by the architect or structural designer.  Think about how forms will be built, then removed if necessary.
8. There is no foolproof design.
9. The best way to ensure a failure is to disregard or ignore lessons from past failures.
10. Many problems can be avoided by using a little loving care.


The AASHTO publications Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and LRFD Bridge Design Specifications are the basic documents guiding the design of highway bridges and structures. This WSDOT Bridge Design Manual is intended to supplement AASHTO and other specifications by provid-ing  additional direction, design aids, examples, and information on office practices. Where conflicts exist between this manual and the AASHTO Standard Specifications, this manual will control. When a conflict exists that is not resolved within the manual, further guidance shall be obtained from the Bridge Design Engineer or his representative. The AASHTO publications are not duplicated in this manual. Appropriate specifications and other references are listed in Section 1.99.


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Tallest tower of Paris, located on Champ de Mars in Paris, erected in 1889 as the entrance arch for World’s fair, Eiffel Tower (La tour Eiffel) goes green as Universal Green Energy (UGE) – a Canadian based company has installed two VisionAIR5 vertical axis wind turbines on the first floor of iconic iron lattice tower.

Within past 126 years Eiffel tower has gone through a lot of renovations but the latest makeover is decidedly green. The group that runs the tower is also installing rainwater collection systems, LED lights and Solar panels on the tower.

Workers of UGE on Eiffel Tower

The turbines will produce over 10,000 kWh of electricity a year that will suffice the annual consumption of all the commercial activity on the Tower’s first floor.

The engineers of UGE said that Wind Energy was uniquely suited for the building as on that height strong gusts of winds are naturally present that can be used and harnessed to produce energy. For solar energy a bit of space is required which is currently not available moreover the glass like look of solar panels will ruin the architectural view of the tower.

In the start the idea regarding design was questioned that these turbines might ruin the apparent beauty of the iron-clad building but opposite has been true, as the 17-feet turbines are painted to match the color of the tower and it has produced a very positive result.

The wind turbines are specifically design for urban towers that produces less sound and are also equipped with dampers to reduce the impact of vibrations that might trouble the tenants because they don’t want to be living in something that’s going to be shaking and moving.

Night View of Turbine on Eiffel Tower

The project is a part of the Paris Climate Plan trying to reduce the environmental impact of the tower by 25 percent. The SETE (Societe d’Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel), the tower’s operating company, is funding the entire cost of the renovation itself.

 Nick Bitterswyk, CEO of UGE told that The Eiffel Tower is arguably the most renowned architectural icon in the world, and they are proud that their advanced technology was chosen as the Tower commits to a more sustainable future.

Renovation of the Soumagne bridge in Belgium, by 4m Engineering, affiliate of 4m Group, in 2013.

4m Engineering is one of the key actors on the Belgian market, possessing a team of specialists with over 10 years of experience in the complete renovation of civil engineering structures.

Soumagne Bridge in Belgium

CCTV captured the moment a man and woman disappeared from view just moments after stepping onto the pavement

Construction failure turns into a horrifying situation when a big sinkhole turns into a deadly hole for passers.

This is the horrifying moment two people were swallowed up by a sinkhole that appeared out of nowhere in the ground.

CCTV footage from South Korea shows the moment a man and a woman stepped off a bus before suddenly disappearing when the pavement underneath their feet gave way.

Onlookers can be seen peering into the huge hole, horrified by what they have just seen.

Horrifying: Two bus passengers disappear into the sinkhole just moments after stepping onto the pavement
Thankfully, the couple were later rescued from the sinkhole, thought to be at least 10 feet deep.

Despite their fall, the pair managed to escape with only minor injuries.

The pavement has now been cordoned off while local authorities attempt to investigate the reason for the sinkhole - although a common cause is usually cited as land erosion.

Meanwhile, in China, a giant sinkhole swallowed up a car just seconds after the driver managed to make a dramatic escape.

A £2 million project to improve congestion at Ainley Top roundabout has been shortlisted for an award.

The project, that saw the widening of three lanes and new traffic signals at Ainley Top roundabout, has made the final in the “£500,000 and £5 million projects” category at the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) Yorkshire and Humber 2015 Awards.

Eric Wright Civil Engineering spent nearly two months completing the works on the A629 roundabout, which was designed by Sanderson Associates Ltd, last year.

All top

The A629 roundabout is a key route for thousands of vehicles every day and will support additional traffic from a new housing development on the nearby Lindley Moor.

The awards are on March 7.

Chairman of a research organization in water resources has said that at 24th March 2015 world water day would be celebrated. This year the theme of world’s water day is “Water and Integrated Progress”. He told that a ceremony regarding world water day would be arranged in Planning Commission of Pakistan.

Expectation is that Mr. President would be the chief guest of this ceremony. He said there are certain factors in which we are trying to increase our progress, how youth can be incorporated in water management, how effect of climate change can be diluted and minimal effect of the same can be ensured. 

He said that we will make sure the approval of the draft so that we can get progress in this field.  

*PCRW= Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources

Saad Iqbal

{picture#} Hi there, I am Saad Iqbal from Pakistan - Founder of Iamcivilengineer. I am Currently Working in a Consultancy Firm as Junior Engineer and am a Passionate blogger and a Civil Engineer from UET Taxila, Pakistan. {facebook#} {twitter#} {google#} {pinterest#} {youtube#}


{picture#} Hi there, I am Saad Iqbal from Pakistan - Founder of Iamcivilengineer. I am Currently Working in a Consultancy Firm as Junior Engineer and am a Passionate blogger and a Civil Engineer from UET Taxila, Pakistan. {facebook#} {twitter#} {google#} {pinterest#} {youtube#}
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