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Environmental engineering is a relatively new profession with a long and honorable history. The descriptive title of “environmental engineer” was not used until the 1960s, when academic programs in engineering and public health schools broadened their scope and required a more accurate title to describe their curricula and their graduates. The roots  of  this  profession,  however,  go  back  as  far  as  recorded  history.  These roots reach into several major disciplines including civil engineering, public health, ecology, chemistry, and meteorology. From each foundation, the environmental engineering profession draws knowledge, skill, and professionalism.  From ethics, the environmental engineer draws concern for the greater good.

Environmental Engineering

Author of the Book

Ruth F. Weiner and Robin Matthews

Assessing Environmental Impact

Environmental engineering requires that the impact and interaction of engineered structures on and with the natural environment be considered in any project. In 1970 this principle was enacted into federal law in the United States. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that environmental impact be assessed whenever a federal action will have an environmental impact, as well as requiring that alternatives be considered. Many  states have enacted similar legislation to apply to state or state-licensed actions. Since 1990, a number of “programmatic” environmental impact statements have been drafted.

Risk Analysis

One of  the tasks of  the environmental engineer is to understand and reduce the risks from hazards from environmental pollution to the environment and to public health in both long and short term. In particular the environmental engineer frequently is asked to estimate or project future risks, then to use science, engineering, and technology to design facilities andor processes to prevent or mitigate those risks. To accomplish this objective the risks associated with various hazards must initially be evaluated and Risk analysis is introduced here as a tool of the environmental engineer that crosses the boundaries of  science, engineering, and risk analysis. This chapter is not a comprehensive treatise on risk analysis; rather, it includes those elements of risk analysis that an environmental engineer most importantly must understand and use.

Water Pollution

Although people  intuitively relate  filth  to  disease,  the  transmission of  disease by pathogenic organisms in polluted water was not recognized until the middle of  the nineteenth century. The Broad Street pump handle incident demonstrated dramatically that water could carry diseases.

Measurement of Water Quality

Quantitative measurements of pollutants are obviously necessary before water pollution can be controlled. Measurement of these pollutants is, however, fraught with difficulties. Sometimes specific materials responsible for the pollution are not known. Moreover, these pollutants are generally present at low concentrations, and very accurate methods of detection are required.

Water Supply

A supply of water is critical to the survival of life as we know it. People need water to drink, animals need water to drink, and plants need water to drink. The basic functions of  society require water: cleaning for public health, consumption for industrial processes, and cooling for electrical generation. In this chapter, we discuss water supply in terms of:
the hydrologic cycle and water availability,
groundwater supplies,
surface water supplies, and
water transmission.

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Water Treatment

Many aquifers and isolated surface waters are high in water quality and may be pumped from the supply and transmission network directly to any number of end uses, including human consumption, irrigation, industrial processes, or fire control. However, clean water sources are the exception in may parts of the world, particularly regions where the population is dense or where there is heavy agricultural use.  In these places, the water supply must receive varying degrees of treatment before distribution.

Contents of the Book

Environmental Engineering
Assessing Environmental Impact
Risk Analysis
Water Pollution
Measurement of Water Quality
Water Supply
Water Treatment
Collection of Wastewater
Wastewater Treatment
Sludge Treatment and Disposal
Nonpoint Source Water Pollution
Solid Waste
Solid Waste Disposal
Reuse, Recycling, and Resource Recovery
Radioactive Waste
Solid and Hazardous Waste Law
Meterorology and Air Pollution
Measurement of Air Quality
Air pollution Control
Air Pollution Law
Noise Pollution

Within past few decades digital media and animated world have revolutionized the imagination of creators. From simple sketching to highly optimize nearest to reality rendering is the next to many other advantages of digital 3-dimensional graphics.

What is 3ds Max?

3d Modeling and animation has now proven itself as a separate industry. Softwares like Cinema 4d, Maya and 3ds Max are some of leading software packages of the industry. 3ds Max was formally known as “3D Studio” that has all the built-in designs, tools and equipments that are required for 3D Modeling, animation and rendering. The software is developed by Media and Entertainment division of Autodesk, Inc. San Rafael, Canada.

Use of 3ds Max 

3d Studio Max or 3ds Max is now being used frequently by Video game developers, TV Commercials, Animated Movies and architectural visualization studios. It is also being used for movie effects and movie pre-visualization.

3ds Max provides efficient tools, accelerated performance, and streamlined workflows to help increase overall productivity for working with complex, high-resolution assets.
3ds Max gives users the ability to construct digital three-dimensional models and, by applying lighting, materials and other features enabled by the program, to create photorealistic renderings and
animations of the 3d Objects.

Features of 3ds max

Additionally, 3ds max supports the use of other file types that can be in the form of image maps, plugins, pre-built models from other programs such as AutoCAD, and rendering images and animations.

The software has a range of applications in industries such as building and industrial design, where accurate digital simulations have widely replaced physical mock-ups for testing and visualization purposed, as well as in the entertainment industry for creating and animating fantasy environments and characters.

Operations of 3ds Max

3ds Max is used efficiently for following operations ;-
a) Modeling
b) Material editing
c) Lighting
d) Camera Manipulation
e) Animation
f) Rendering

An efficient easy to use Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows users of 3ds Max to use the software by few clicks and commands that can turn the simple graphics into a live animated near to reality models.

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Population prediction is a very important aspect in environmental engineering that helps in determination of certain factors that helps in future planning and for accurate determination of the certain requirement in future. 

The current population of any society can be estimated with census where as future predictions can be obtained with trends and knowledge of the city and its environment along with certain reasons that can input into the population like development, expansion etc. 

Definition of Population Projection

Population Projection is extrapolation of historical data into the future. An attempt to describe what is likely to happen under certain explicit assumptions about the future as related to the immediate paste. 

A set of calculations, which show the future course of fertility, mortality and migration depending on the assumptions used. 

Following are some of the Methods that are usually used for prediction of population;

a) Arithmetical Progression Method
b) Geometrical Progression Method
c) Annual Rate of Increase Method
d) Incremental Increase Method
e) Changing Rate of Increase Method
f) Graphical Method

Among all these types the most accurate method is that of Graphical method. 

I will describe all these methods one by one; 

Arithmetic Progression Method;

In this method we assume that growth rate for certain duration of time remains constant i.e. if annual increment in rate is 20% in 1960 it will remain 20% in 1980 as well. 
 In this method we assume a straight line relationship between population and time i.e. population varies linearly with time. Thus we can express
P(t) = P + b*t
Where P(t) is population t years later
b is the annual amount of population change
t is time may be years

Geometrical Progression Method

In this method the growth is assumed to follow geometric series. Growth is assumed to be constant for a specific period of time. Thus, population at the end of n years is given as;
Pn = P( 1+ i/100) n where
i = per year percentage rate of increase. 

Incremental Increase Method

Incremental increase method is similar to Arithmetic Progression method with the difference that we found out the average in the increase of population and that average is added into the net increment of population. 

Changing Rate of Increase Method

This method is similar to Geometric Progression method except that a changing rather than a constant rate of increase is assumed. 

Annual Rate of Increase Method

In this method, the rate of increase for one year is first determined and then population is  predicted from there. 
Pn = P (1+ i)^n 
Pn = population at the end of n years
P = population at any time
i = annual rate of increase of population

Graphical Method

These mostly involve extension of the plotted data on a population-time curve. Considering towns which were in similar situations over 30 or 40 years ago and drawing graphs of their increase of population, the extension of plotted data for the city under considering can then be reasonably assumed. This method being logically based gives quite accurate prediction of population and is therefore frequently used when population figures of other similar cities are known. 


Here is a simple example of Population Projection

Click to Enlarge

Groundwater is enormous and significant source of fresh water that owns huge share regarding water requirement of humans. Soil being a porous and non-porous medium allows movement of water through interstices and pores through various phenomenon.

In terms of groundwater hydrology, the underground soil water is classified in to two basic zones:-

a) Zone of Aeration
b) Zone of Saturation

Zone of Saturation - Pheratic Zone

Zone of Saturation, also termed as Pheratic zone, is the one in which all the voids of the soil is completely saturated and filled with water under hydrostatic pressure. 

Word Pheratic originates from Greek word Pherat meaning well or spring. One other simple definition of Pheratic Zone or Saturated Zone is that it is the space below water table that consists of an aquifer (a water body).  The direction of ground water will be determined by the slope of pheratic surface.

Zone of Aeration - Vadose Zone

Zone of Aeration, also termed as Vadose zone or unsaturated zone, is that portion of sub-soil in which interstices or pores are filled partially with air and partially with water. The word Vadose is derived from Latin meaning Shallow.

One simple definition of zone of aeration is space above water table and below the surface of earth is known as aeration zone. 

The water present in vadose zone is at or below atmospheric pressure.  The unsaturated, vedose or aeration zone is further classified into three sub zones:-

a. Soil – water Zone: This begins at the ground surface and extends downward through the major root zone. Its total depth is variable and dependent upon soil type and vegetation. The zone is unsaturated except during periods of heavy infiltration. Three categories of water classification may be encountered in this region: hygroscopic water, which is absorbed from the air; capillary water, which is held by surface tension and gravitation water, which is excess soil water draining through the soil.

b. Intermediate Zone: This zone extends from the bottom of the soil-water zone to the top of the capillary fringe and may vary from nonexistence to several hundred feet in thickness. The zone is essentially a connecting link between the near-ground-surface region and the near-water-table region, through which infiltrating waters must pass.

c. Capillary Zone: This zone extends from the water table to a height determined by the capillary rise that can be generated in the soil. The capillary-zone thickness is a function of soil texture and may vary not only from region to region but also within a local area.

Concept of Influence line was developed by Winkler in 1867. Influence Diagram concept is used for analysis of structures that are subjected to variable or moving loads. Structures like bridges, culverts and even roofs of a house is also such structures that have live and moving loads.


Influence line is defined as;

“a graph of a response function of a structure as a function of the position of a downward unit load moving across the structure”

A structure is subjected to live load or a dead load i.e. fixed load. Live load includes load of moving objects as well as that of wind load, earthquake load. One important definition of live load is the load that has change in magnitude as well as change in direction in short span of time. Dead load includes the load of structure i.e. self weight and the load of the parts that are fixed with the structure.

The best description of structure response due to dead load is bending moment diagram and shear force diagram. The bending moment diagram and shear force diagram describes variation of bending moment or of shear force across the length of the member.

Live load and influence line diagram

But the best description of structure response for live load is defined by influence line diagram. The influence line represents the variation of either the reaction, shear force, moment or deflection at a specific point in a member as a concentrated force that moves over the member. When the diagram is formulated one can easily determine the most critical live load position for which the structure must be designed for live load.

The ordinates of the influence-line diagram gives you the values of associated reaction, shear or moment, or deflection at the point.

Difference between Bending Moment Diagram and Shear Force Diagram

Influence lines represent the effect of a moving load only at a specified point on a member, whereas shear and moment diagrams represent the effect of fixed loads at all points along the axis of the member

a)      Static and Moving Load
b)    Diagrams show only one point on the beam.
c)     Calculations based on the virtual load.
d)     Straight line only
e)     Calculations do not refer to reactions of beam.
f)       Unit: m
a)     Static load only.
b)    Diagram shows the moment at all points on the beam.
c)     Calculations based on real loads.
d)     Straight lines and curves.
e)     Calculations based on the SFD.

f)       Unit : kNm

Irrigation Department of Govt. Of Punjab, Pakistan has started recruting 20 Posts for BS-17 Scale and an excellent oppertunity for young enthusiatic Civil Engineers. The detials of the Job is as under;


Assistant Executive Engineer
Sub Divisional Officer
Assitant Design Engineer
Assistant Design Officer
Assistant Director Flood Monitoring
Assistant Director


Irrigation Department

Nature of Job

3 years Contract Basis BS -17

Qualification Required

i)          B.Sc. Engineering or B.E (Civil) or an equivalent             qualification from University or Institution recognized      by Pakistan Engineering Council; and
ii)          Registered as Engineer with Pakistan Engineering Council, except in a case where section 28 (b) of the    Pakistan Engineering Council Act, 1976 (V of 1976) applies.


Male Candidates:          21 to 30 + 05 years general relaxation in upper age limit vide Notification No. SOR-I (S&GAD) 9-36/81 dated 21-05-2012 = 35 years on 09-03-2015.
Female Candidates:      21 to 30 + 08 years general relaxation in upper age limit vide Notification No. SOR-I (S&GAD)9-36/81 dated 21-05-2012 = 38 years on 09-03-2015.
DOMICILE:                   Punjab.
GENDER:                     Male, Female & Shemale candidates domiciled in any district of the Province of Punjab.
PLACE OF POSTING:  Anywhere in the Province of Punjab.


*           Design of Hydraulic Structure, Barrage, Fall, Canal, Head Regulator.
*           Design of River Training Work, Spur, Embankments, Apron, Pitch etc.
*           Design of Roof Slab.
*           Design and working of various types of outlets.
*           Draw off / capacity statement.
*           Discharge measurement of Canal.

How to Apply

The application for the above mentioned post should be filled online and no by-hand submission is acceptable.
go to
www.pbsc.gop.pk for appling online

Protection of foundation structures against attack by soils and ground water
A site investigation in one form or another is always required for any engineering or building structure. The investigation may range in scope from a simple examination of the surface soils with or without a few shallow trial pits, to a detailed study of the soil and ground water conditions to a considerable depth below the surface by means of boreholes and in-situ and laboratory tests on the materials encountered. The extent of the work depends on the importance and foundation arrangement of the structure, the complexity of the soil conditions, and the information which may be available on the behavior of existing foundations on similar soils.

Title of the Book

Foundation Design and Construction

Author of the Book

MJ Tomlinson

Contents of the Book

Site Investigation and Soil Mechanics
The General principles of foundation design
Foundation Design in Relation to Ground Movement
Spread and Deep Shaft foundations
Buoyancy Rafts and Basements (Box Foundations)
Bridge Foundations
Piles Foundations
Piled Foundations Structural design and construction methods
Foundation construction
Shoring and Underpinning

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National Engineering Services Pakistan (Pvt.) Limited (NESPAK), a leading International Engineering Consultancy requires the services of following categories of professionals (on contract basis):

Jobs in NESPAK



Civil Engineering Graduates preferably M.Sc from a recognized university having atleast 5 years experience in Construction Supervision of water pipelines/mains, large diameter sewers, sewage pumping stations and water and wastewater treatment plants/water retaining structures. The candidates with good communication and managerial skills will be preferred.

Requirements of Job

Suitably qualified candidates from HEC recognized universities may apply alongwith N-R-01 Form (download), detailed CVs, attested copies of degrees, certificates, detailed marksheets, CNIC, photograph, PEC Registration (if applicable) and experience certificates to the Vice President Human Resources Division NESPAK House, 1-C, Block-N, Model Town Extension Lahore latest by March 02, 2015. Position applied for and total experience (if any) must be written in the application and highlighted on the upper right corner of the envelope as well.  Shortlisted Junior Economists having 1 year or less experience will have to go through NTS examination.  Incomplete applications will not be entertained. Only short listed candidates shall be called for interview. No TA/DA shall be admissible.

Click Here to apply

Since our beginnings, we have sought shelter as protection from the elements. Yet, even today, after centuries of technological advances in materials and construction techniques, we are still confronted by nature’s elements contaminating our constructed shelters. This is not due to a lack of effective waterproofing systems and products.

Construction Waterproofing Handbook for free

Waterproofing problems continue to plague us due to the increasing complexity of shelter construction, a disregard for the most basic waterproofing principles, and an inability to coordinate interfacing between the multitude of construction systems involved in a single building. Adequately controlling groundwater, rainwater, and surface water will prevent dam-age and avoid unnecessary repairs to building envelopes. In fact, water is the most destructive weathering element of concrete, masonry, and natural stone structures.

Water continues to damage or completely destroy more buildings and structures than war or natural disasters. Water and moisture infiltration is also responsible for mold formation and the related health issues of building occupants. Waterproofing techniques preserve a structure’s integrity and usefulness through an understanding of natural forces and their effect during life-cycling. Waterproofing also involves choosing proper designs and materials to counter the detrimental effects of these natural forces.

Title of the Book

Construction Waterproffing
Second Edition

Author of the Book

Michael T. Kubal

Contents of the Book

Chapter 1 : Waterproofing Principles – The Building Envelope
Chapter 2: Below-Grade waterproofing
Chapter 3: Above-Grade Waterproofing
Chapter 4: Residential Waterproofing
Chapter 5: Sealants
Chapter 6: Expansion Joints
Chapter 7: Admixtures
Chapter 8: Remedial Waterproofing
Chapter 9: Mold
Chapter 10: The building Envelope: Putting it all together
Chapter 11: Life Cycles: Quality, Maintainance, and Warranties
Chapter 12: Envelope Testing
Chapter 13: Leak Investigation and Detection
Chapter 14: Safety
Chapter 15: Guide Specifications for Waterproofing
Chapter 16: Resources

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Pakistan State Oil Ltd (PSO), a leading firm in Oil Market, Largest in Pakistan needs passionate, educated and able professionals.

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In recent years free-standing and geometric (Sprial, helical, elliptical and combinations) staircases have become quite popular. Many variations of these staircases exists. A number of researchers have come forward with different concepts in the field of analytical, numerical, design and of experimental assessments. The aim of this book is to cover all these methods and to present them with greater simplicity to a practicing engineer. The numerous examples which are given in the text will obviously deals with that task easier.

Stair Cases Structural Analysis and Design

Title of the Book

Stair Cases Structural Analysis and Design

Authors of the Book

M.Y.H. Bangash
T. Bangash

Contents of the Book

Specifications and Basic Data on Staircases
Structural analysis of staircases : Classical Methods
Structural Analysis of Staircases – Modern Methods
Staircases and their analysis a comparative study
Design analysis and structural detailing
Appendix 1 supporting analysis
Appendix 2 structural details for practicing engineer

Download the Book

The Content is for Members Only !!!

This Book is available to download only for our Bronze, Silver & Gold Level Members, you can simply click the button below to signup / login for your membership & Download.
Download this Book


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