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A structure refers to a system of connected parts used to support a load. Important examples related to civil engineering include buildings, bridges, and towers; and in other branches of engineering, ship and aircraft frames, tanks, pressure vessels, mechanical systems, and electrical supporting structures are important.

When designing a structure to serve a specified function for public use, the engineer must account for its safety, esthetics, and serviceability, while taking into consideration economic and environmental constraints. Often this requires several independent studies of different solutions before final judgment can be made as to which structural form is most appropriate.
This design process is both creative and technical and requires a fundamental knowledge of material properties and the laws of mechanics which govern material response. Once a preliminary design of a structure is proposed, the structure must then be analyzed to ensure that it has its required stiffness and strength.

To analyze a structure properly, certain idealizations must be made as to how the members are supported and connected together. The loadings are determined from codes and local specifications, and the forces in the members and their displacements are found using the theory of structural analysis, which is the subject matter of this text.

## Title of Book

Structural Analysis

R. C. Hibbeler

8th Edition

## Contents

### Types of Structures and Loads

1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Classification of Structures 4
1.4 Structural Design 26

### Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

2.1 Idealized Structure 33
2.2 Principle of Superposition 46
2.3 Equations of Equilibrium 47
2.4 Determinacy and Stability 48
2.5 Application of the Equations of Equilibrium 59

### Analysis of Statically Determinate Trusses

3.1 Common Types of Trusses 79
3.2 Classification of Coplanar Trusses 85
3.3 The Method of Joints 94
3.4 Zero-Force Members 98

4.2 Shear and Moment Functions 139
4.3 Shear and Moment Diagrams for a Beam 150
4.4 Shear and Moment Diagrams for a Frame 163
4.5 Moment Diagrams Constructed by the Method of Superposition 168

### Cables and Arches

5.1 Cables 181
5.2 Cable Subjected to Concentrated Loads 182
5.3 Cable Subjected to a Uniform Distributed Load 184
5.4 Arches 194
5.5 Three-Hinged Arch 195