March 2017
3d Modeling Softwares 3D Printed 3d Softwares abutment Abutment Designs ACI ACI code Adhesion Adhesives Admixtures Advantages Agricultural Engineering Airport and Runway engineering Airports AKB Alam Khan Amazing Bridges amazing buildings America American Local Construction news Amsterdam Analysis Anchorage Length Arch Bridges Arch Dam Design Arch Dam Pdf Arch Dams Architect Architecture ARE Art Articles Articulating Concrete Block Aspahlt Asphalt Asphalt Pavements Asphalt Plant Jobs Asphaltic Concrete Assistant Director Assistant Engineer Jobs in University Assistant Resident Engineer Jobs Associate Civil Engineering At grade Intersections At Site Testing Auger Autocad Jobs Autocad Plans Autocad Projects Autodesk B.E. Jobs B.Sc. Jobs B.Tech Jobs Backfill Grouting Bahria Foundation Bahria Town Balochistan Bamboo Bamboo as Construction Material Bar Bending Schedule Barrage Basic Civil Engineering Basics Bauer BBS Beam Beam Supports Beam Types Beams Bending Moment Bentley Bidding Manager Bitumen BMD Bonds in Brick Masonry Book Book by William M.C. Mckenzie Books Books by A Books by Animesh Das Books by Douglas Thorby Books by Duncan Cartlidge Books by E. John Finnemore Books by G.C. Mays Books by Joseph B. Franzini Books by Partha Chakroborty Books by S.K. Roy Books by Saeid Eslamian Books on Concrete Books on Earthquakes Books on Fluid Mechanics Books on Materials Books on Project Management Box Girder Box Girder Birdges Brazil Construction News Brazil News Brick Masonry Bricks Bridge Bridge Construction Bridge Design Bridge Engineering Bridges Bridges in China Bridges in Netherlands Bridges in Spain Bsc Jobs BSc. Engg. Jobs Building Building Construction Building Design Building Drawing Building Jobs Building joints Buildings Canal Lining Canal Road Career Case Studies Case Study CE Videos CED Cement Cement Plant Jobs Cement Tests CFRP Chakwal Jobs China China Construction News China Pakistan Economic Corridor China Project Circular Slab Civil Contractor Jobs Civil Engineer Civil Engineer fun Civil Engineer in Education Civil Engineering Civil Engineering Articles Civil Engineering Book Civil Engineering Books Civil Engineering books by Alan Twort Civil Engineering Books by Asif Syed Civil Engineering Books by Gordon Rees Civil Engineering Books by R.M. Khatsuria Civil Engineering Books by Tyler G. Hicks Civil Engineering Calculator Civil Engineering Career Civil Engineering Clips Civil Engineering Companies Civil Engineering Conference Civil Engineering Consultants Civil Engineering Contracts Civil Engineering Degree jobs Civil Engineering Dictionary Civil Engineering Discoveries Civil Engineering Documentaries Civil Engineering Documents Civil Engineering Download Civil Engineering Downloads Civil Engineering Drawing Civil Engineering Education Civil Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering Events Civil Engineering Events Webinar Civil Engineering Experiments Civil Engineering Formulas Civil Engineering Fun Civil Engineering Handbooks Civil Engineering Innovation Civil Engineering Innovations Civil Engineering Interesting Civil Engineering Islamabad Companies Civil Engineering Job Civil Engineering Jobs Civil Engineering Jobs in Client Civil Engineering Jobs in Lahore Civil Engineering Jobs in Oil Industry Civil Engineering Jobs in Pakistan Civil Engineering jobs in Sheikhupura Civil Engineering Jokes Civil Engineering Lab Experiments Civil Engineering Laboratory Civil Engineering Magazines Civil Engineering Management Civil Engineering Manuals Civil Engineering Materials Civil Engineering MCQs Civil Engineering News Civil Engineering Practice Civil Engineering Presentations Civil Engineering Projects Civil Engineering Questions Civil Engineering Reports Civil Engineering Research civil Engineering Software Civil Engineering Softwares Civil Engineering Students Civil Engineering Subjects Civil Engineering Tenders Civil Engineering Terminologies Civil Engineering Terms Civil Engineering Text Books Civil Engineering Tips Civil Engineering Tools Civil Engineering Tutorials Civil Engineering Universities Civil Engineering Videos Civil Engneering Projects Classification of Arch Dam Client Jobs Clips Cloverleaf Interchange Cochin International Airport Codes Coduto Cofferdams Collapse Communication & Works Department Companies Company Profile Competitions Concepts Concrete Concrete Books Concrete Concepts Private Limited Concrete Construction Concrete Defects Concrete Experiments Concrete Grout Concrete Mixing Concrete Pavement Concrete Quality Concrete Repair Concrete Research Concrete Research Projects Concrete Structure Concrete Structures Concrete Technology Concrete Tests Concrete Types Concreting Conditions for Soil Liquefaction Conferences Conflexpave Construction Construction Cost Construction Defects Construction Industry Construction Jobs Construction Machinery Construction Management Construction Management Jobs Construction Manager Construction Manager Jobs Construction Materials Construction News Construction News India Construction news Turkey Construction of Dams Construction Problems Construction Projects Construction Supervision Jobs Construction Techniques Consultant Companies Consultant Jobs Contract Documents Contract Jobs Contract Management Contract Managers Contractor Books Contractor Companies Contractor Jobs Cost Estimation Cost of Civil Engineering Works CPEC Crises Cross Rail Culverts CV CV Samples CVs DAE Experience Jobs DAE Jobs Dae jobs in Government Dam Dam Engineering Dam Structure Dampness Dams Dasu Dam Data De-ice Pavements Deadliest Defects in Concrete Definition Degrees Density Deputy Director Deputy Project Manager Jobs DESCON Jobs Design Engineer Design Jobs Design of Pavements Design of Structures Design Scape Development Length Dictionary Difference Difference between Director Director Civil Directory Disaster Management Discoveries Documentaries Doors Download Downloads Draftsman Jobs Drawing Drawing and Estimation Dredging Dubai DWG EA Consulting PVT LTD EA World Earthquake Earthquake Buildings Earthquake Engineering Earthquakes ECSP Education Education News Effects of Earthquakes Effects of Sulfate Attack Eiffel Tower Emissions from Industries Energy Efficient Building Engineer Required Engineering Engineering Consultancy Services Punjab Engineering Drawing Engineering Hydrology Engineering Mechanics Environment Environmental Articles Environmental Engineer Environmental Engineer Jobs Environmental Engineering Environmental Engineering Books Environmental Engineering Jobs Environmental Failures Escalators Estimation Estimation Engineer ETABS Ettringite Formation Eurocode Event Events Events & Conferences Excel Sheets Executive Engineer Expansion Joint Experience Jobs Experienced Jobs Experiment Experiments on concrete Expos Extension of Time Faculty Jobs Failure of Structures Failure of Water Main Faisalabad Falkirk Famous FAQ FAQs Featured Fiel Tips Field Density Tests Field Problems Field Tests Field Tips Field Tips Books Field work Final Year Projects Flexural Formula Flood Control Floor Floor Types Flooring Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Books Fontys University Foreign Formwork Foundation Foundation Construction Foundation Engineer Foundation Engineering France Fresh Civil Engineering Jobs Friction Piles Frontier Works Organization Fun funny Funny Civil Engineering Funny Civil Engineering Jokes Funny Videos FWO General Geologist Geology Geotech Geotechnical engineering Geotechnical Engineering Books Ghaziabad Gilgit Glass Bridges Glass Construction Government Jobs Government of Punjab Green Building Green Concrete Green Technology Grillage Foundation Groundwater Grout Grouting Guest Articles Handbooks Headworks Health and Safety HEC Higher Education Commission Highway Highway Construction Highway Design Highway Engineering Highway Engineering Videos Highway Jobs Highway Marking Highway Materials Highway Roads Highway Videos Highways History History of Civil Engineering HMA Hollow Core Slabs Hollow planks Honeycombing Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge HongKong Hospital Projects Hospitals in Sakardu How to HSE Hyderabad Hydraulic Design Engineer Hydraulic Engineer Hydraulics Hydraulics Books Hydro Power Sector Civil Engineering Jobs Hydrology Hydrology Books Hydrology Softwares Hydropower Jobs Hydropower Plant Jobs Hydropower Projects Iamcivilengineer Ice Hotel 365 Images Impact Study Incoming Projects India India Construction News Indian Airport Indus Water Treaty Industrial Engineering Industry News Influence Line Diagrams Infrastructure Crises Innovation Inspector Jobs Institutions Interesting Interesting Bridges Interesting Buildings Interesting Engineering Interesting Facts Interesting News Interesting Projects Interesting Tower Bridges Interesting Transportation Internships Intersections Interview Questions Interviews Invention Iran Buildings Irrigation Irrigation Canal Irrigation Canal Lining Irrigation Engineering Islamabad Islamabad Companies Islamabad Consultant Companies Islamabad Jobs Islamabad News Islamabad Projects IST Istanbul News Italy Jack Jacking Force Job Job Mix Formula Job Openings Jobs Jobs in Bahria Foundation jobs in cnw Jobs in Consultant Firms Jobs in Hydropower Sector Jobs in Irrigation Department Jobs in Islamabad Jobs in Manazel Construction Company Jobs in Saudia Arabia Jobs in SSWMB jobs in Sukkur IBA Jobs in Universities Karachi Karachi Consultant Companies Karachi Jobs Karachi Projects Kelpies KEMU Jobs King Edward Medical College Jobs KSA jobs L.F. Webseter Lab Tests Laboratory Laboratory Experiments Laboratory Manuals Laboratory Tests Lahore Lahore Consultant Companies Lahore Jobs Lap Length LDA Lectures Lightweight Concrete Liquefaction Listing Local Local News Local Projects Locals London News Los Angeles Abrasion Test Machines Magazines Management Management Jobs Manager Execution Manager Procurement Manazel Construction Company Marafie Foundation Marshall Marshall Flow Test Marshall Mix Design Marshall Stability Test Masjid Plans Masonry Masonry and Concrete Masonry Construction Masonry Structures Mass Transit System Material Engineer Jobs Material Engineering Material Research Matrix Analysis Matrix Analysis Books MCQs Meetups MegaStructures Methods Methods of Concrete Metro Bus Service Metro Train Project Metro Train service Mississippi River Bridge MIT Mixing of Concrete Mosque Architectural Plans Mosque Plans Mosque Structural Details Motorways MSc Jobs Multinational Namal Education Foundation National Logistic Cell Jobs Negative Friction NESPAK Netherland Structures Netherlands New New Ideas New Khanki Bridge New Projects New Technology News Nlc NLC Jobs NLC Sowan Camp NTU Singapore Nyottingham Online Calculator Online Design Tools Overlap Length Overlay of Pavements Overlays P.N. Khanna PAF Pakistan Pakistan Airforce Jobs Pakistan Companies Pakistan Construction News Pakistan Consultant Companies Pakistan Consultant Firms Pakistan Engineering Council Pakistan Hydropower Projects Pakistan Jobs Pakistan News Pakistan Projects Palm Islands Dubai Parts of Bridges Pavement Pavement Design Pavement Distresses Pavement Engineering Pavements Paving Asphalt Videos PDF PDF Downloads PEC PEC Course PEC Islamabad Events Pedestrian bridges Percy Shaw Peshawar Consultant Companies Pheratic Pile Pile Foundation Piles Planning Planning Engineer Planning Engineer Jobs Plant Construction Jobs Plastering Plasticizers Plinth Beam PM PMU Pocket Book Population Forcast Population Project Post Tensioning Post-Tensioning Post-tensioning Jacks Pouring PowerSurvey PPRA PPTs Pre Stressing Pre-stressed Concrete Precast Precast slabs Premier Services Presentations Prestressing Prevention of Sulphate Attack Primary & Secondary Health Care Department Primaver Tutorials Primavera Primavera Database Connection Private jobs Problems Professions Project Project Acquisition Project Claims Project Control (planning) Manager / Engineer Project Director Project Engineer Job Project Engineer Jobs Project Management Project Management Books Project Management Course Project management Jobs Project Manager Project Manager Jobs Project Managment Unit Project News Project on Solar Energy Project Profile Projects Properties of Concrete Punjab Government QA/QC QA/QC Engineer Quality Assurance Quality Control Quality of Concrete Quantity Surveying Quantity Surveyor Quantity Surveyor Jobs Question Answers Quetta R. Hutchinson R.C.C Raft foundation RAILCOP Railway Bridges Railway Engineering Railway Engineering Jobs Railways Raised Pavement Markers Rawalpindi Jobs RCC RE Recycled Construction Recycled Pavement Recycled Plastic Roads Reduce Emissions Reinforced Cement Concrete Reinforced Concrete Reinforced Earth Panels reinforcement Reinforcement Bending Schedule Renewable Resources Company Renewable Resources Jobs Repairing R.C.C Slab Research Research Projects Research Work Resident Engineer Resident Engineer Jobs Resumes Retroflectors Rigid Concrete Pavement Rigid Pavement Rigid Pavements Road and Highway Road Marking Road Reflectors Roads Roboat Roller Compacted Concrete Rsearch Russia Construction News Saaf Paani Company Samples Samples for CV Samples for Resume Sand Boils Sand Replacement test Scholarship Scholarships Scotland SDO Seismic Activity Seismic books Seismic Design Senior Engineer Jobs Sewerage Treatment Plant SFD Shear Force Short Courses Sindh Solid Waste Management Board Singapore Site Engineer Site Engineer Jobs Site Engineers Site Manager Site Selection Skin Friction Skyscrappers slider slideshow Sludge Slump Small Bridges Software Problems Softwares Soil Soil Boiling Soil Cement Soil Engineering Soil Liquefaction Soil Mechanics Soil Mechanics Books Soil Mechanics Lab Manual Soil Mechanics tests Soil Salinity Soil Sciences Solar Energy Sponsor Posts Sponsored Sponsored Posts Sports Board Punjab Stairs Standards Steel Steel Structures Stone Masonry Strain Strain Hardening Strength Strength of Materials Stress Stresses in soil Structual Analysis Structural Analysis Structural Analysis Books Structural Dynamics Structural Engineering Structural Health Monitoring Structure Structures Studs Study Sub Engineer Sulfate Attack Sulphate Attack Sunlink Superplasticizers Suppliers Survey Surveying Surveying and Levelling Surveyor Books Sweden Sweden Ice Hotel 365 Switzerland Tehran Flyovers Tendering Tendering Explained Tenders Tendon Grouting Tendonds Tendons Terminologies Terms Test on Concrete Tests & Interview Tips Tests on Aggregates Thailand Buildings Tie Beam Timber Engineering Timber Structures Tips Top 10 Trainee Engineer Jobs Trainee Engineers Tram Transportation Engineering Transportation Engineering Books Truss Truss Structures Tunnel Boring Machine Tunnel Engineering Tunnels Turkey News Tutorials Type of Foundation Types Types of Admixtures Types of Beams Types of Bonds Types of Bridges Types of Concrete Types of Doors Types of Intersections Types of Piles Types of Soil Cement Types of Truss U.S. Embassy Jobs UAE Jobs UET jobs UET Lahore Jobs UET Taxila UK News Under Reamed Piles University Jobs University Lecturer Jobs University Project Jobs UPADSD 2017 Upcoming Projects Upcomming Project Upcomming Projects Updates Urban Planning and Sustainable Development Conference USA USA Construction News USA News Vadose Vibration Video Training Videos Walking Excavator Wall Collapse Turkey WASA Waste Management Company Jobs Wastewater Treatment Water Engineering Water Lodging Water News Water Proofing Water Resources WaterCAD Webinar Webinars Weir Widening Wiley & Sons Wonders of World Wood Structures Workability Worked Examples Workshops World News Yngve Bergqvist Zaha Hadid

Tunnels and their stability mechanisms



Introduction

Tunnels can be defined as underground construction for the connection between two destinations to build up an effective means of transportation. Tunnels are made for various purposes such as Railway transportation, for highways, for water supply and for communication cables etc. Tunnel construction has several benefits e.g. less disturbances to surrounding environment and reduced communication distances which results in saving of energy and resources.

What’s a Tunnel Made of?

Tunnel is underground passage constructed through the ground which may be consists of rock or different type of soils. Construction process involves excavation, ground temporary support system and muck removal, erection of permanent support such as lining and provision of other facilities which are required for smooth operations. So one can say that tunnel is made of rock or soil which is supported by permanent supports such as lining to provide adequate stiffness and support to structure against damage and collapse. Various methods based on geological, environmental and economic conditions etc. are available for tunnel construction. New Austrian Tunneling method (NATM), Shield Tunnel method and Cut & Cover method are the famous method of tunnel construction.


Mechanism of Tunnel Stability in the Ground


Tunnel is a thin walled closed excavated cross section and according to peck’s theory, tunnel get stability in a ground through deformation of its shape and/or support from surrounding ground makes it stable (Fig.1). After excavation a loosened zone is created and stress redistributes outside the loosened zone due the formation of ground arch (Fig.2), only few part of ground which is present in loosened zone, imparts load on the support or lining because of this arch action. Trapdoor experiment (Laboratory experiment) reveals this stress redistribution phenomenon. Figure 3 shows that ground will deform upon loading in order to attain stability. This is important to realize that if tunnel supporting pressure will be less, than tunnel will deform more so in case of urban area tunneling, strong lining is required. Fenner-Pacher curve can also be seen to understand the ground stability which explains relationship between supporting pressure and displacement of excavated surface (Fig. 4).



When it comes to retirement, your money is what secures your future.  Financial security does not occur overnight, but you do not need to be intimidated.  With proper planning and responsible commitment, you can create and stick to a budget that will give you what you need after you retire. Despite this, most Americans have never even calculated how much money they need to save to sustain themselves after retirement.  Even more alarming is that a significant number of people are failing to contribute to a defined retirement plan.  Planning for retirement does not have to be an intimidating and frustrating experience.  In fact, putting aside money now will save you time and energy in the future.  Here is a quick guide on how you can plan for your retirement.




Start Saving Now

There is simply no better time than the present to save.  If you have already been saving for years, then you may be on the right track.  However, if you have not been saving, it is best advised that you start right away.  Saving is, by virtue, a rewarding habit.  By putting off some spending now, you are able to save for much bigger ventures.  Start by cutting some unnecessary expenditures, or simply by limiting your monthly spending budget.  If you already have a strict monthly budget, then try to divert a small portion of your savings into a retirement account.  Simply by making your retirement a priority, contributing every month will become second nature and you will be rewarded in the long run.

Invest in Your Employer’s Retirement Saving’s Plan

Many employers offer a 401(k) or equivalent retirement plan.  If this is available to you, then by all means, invest.  Employer retirement plans have many advantages, namely that your retirement will be automatically deducted from your paycheck without your needing to physically do it yourself.  You also fetch a hefty tax break every year for contributing to a 401(k) plan.  By contributing to a plan, your tax deferrals and compound interest will make a huge difference in the amount of money you accumulate by the time of retirement.  Research your plan by asking your employer questions about how much you need to contribute to gain a certain amount of money.  Keep in mind that these plans allow you to adjust the amount you contribute each year depending on your financial situation.  For example, if you are about to send a child off to college, you can change the amount you contribute to make up for the cost.  If, however, you are making much more money that year, you may want to take advantage by contributing more.

Learn About Your Pension Plan

When you become employed, you should ask your employer about whether they have a pension plan.  Sit with a representative from your employer’s human resources department so they can educate you on how the plan works, whether you are covered, and what would happen should you leave the job.

Do Not Take Money Out of Your Retirement Plan

The best way to treat your retirement plan is to not take money out.  Once you begin to take money out of your retirement plan, you will start to lose tax benefits and precious principal interest that accrues over time.  Be sure that if you change jobs, investigate whether it is more advantageous to keep your current savings or create an IRA under your new employer.

Invest in an IRA

There are two different types of IRA’s—either a traditional or Roth IRA.  Depending on which plan you choose, your tax breaks and contribution amount will change.

Know How Much Retirement Savings You Need

Retirement is more expensive than ever.  When you stop working, all of the money you earn goes toward your future.  Therefore, you do not want to go spending right away.  What’s more, people are living much longer than they did before retirement plans were first administered, therefore you will need to consider the type of life you want to live before you begin spending.  Not only do you want to go on big retirement trips or maintain your lifestyle, but you likely will want to invest in other insurance policies that will help you and your family as you get older, such as supplemental medical insurance.  In addition, burial insurance can protect your family and future. Death isn’t something we like to think about, but it’s an important thing to plan for to ensure your loved ones aren’t saddled with impossible bills after your eventual passing.

As you plan your retirement, make sure to touch on each of these facets and strategies to ensure financially secure Golden Years. 

Working as a Civil Engineer at site is a challenging, demanding and exigent task. You might have been worked as a Design Engineer, Planning & Accusation engineer in a suited-booted environment with 9-to-5 working hours; but believe me your nerves and your mental / physical abilities might not be tested. 



Condition of Civil Engineers at site is like those of warriors who are fighting on front lines with the forces of nature; from one end you are bound to work under the streaks of heated sun and in other scene you are working within the stream of cold windy rivers with such a thrust that you are always doubted about your helmet to fly off. Imagine you are already standing in a weather temperature of 45 degree centigrade and you are bound to stand on asphalt of above 100 degree centigrade; so you look, life as a civil engineer is never easy at all!!!

Despite of all the difficulties, you are a human being with the right to live a happy professional routine life and that is only possible if you love your job and are always ready to accept challenges and are stand- up-and-be-recognized sort of behavior. 
In this post we would be dealing with some common mistakes which must be don’ts and to be avoided while working at site :- 

1. Don’t ever use Mobile Phone or  a Gadget Unnecessarily 

Aww!!! It’s difficult to avoid actually and if you are recently engaged or are in a long distant relationship and casually spend hours of texting and calling than it might be difficult in the start but it’s really dangerous.  After all you don’t want your loved one to live with someone else after your death! Sorry for my harsh words really but that is actually what could be the consequences of using a mobile phone at site. 

If you have to use your mobile phone in case of an emergency than rush for some shade or safe area; make a phone call, convey your message and then continue your work. It is also not recommended to use handsfree or Bluetooth device, as this will reduce your hearing efficiency which might drag you towards trouble while working in a region having abundant vehicular movement. 

2. Don’t Ever Walk on Formwork and Shuttering Boards

You know what, in my first project I was walking without safety shoes, but not barefooted at all haha!, during this awesome beach walk I was injected by a nail of a wooden formwork; reason behind walking on that board was actually there was mud and while saving my brand new shoes from getting dirty I finally get them punctured. 

So take some inspiration from me in reverse and never try to save your shoes from mud because if you want to play in mud and don’t want to get your hands dirty then it’s better to leave playing such dirty games !!!. 

Use of safety shoes is a must because it has metal base that protects you from projected sharp corners, nails etc and save your feet from getting wet and cold, but keep in mind that top beauty salons recommend to open up your feet to sky after wearing shoes for a long time. 

3. Don’t try to be a Tarzan or a King Kong !!!

You are a man not an animal, so if you think your abilities of jumping and hanging on the walls will inspire others than I think you are being adopted by some humans but surely you belong to somewhere else. 

If you are going to some spot at site and it does not have proper safe access than don’t indulge in danger although you might love Mr. Micheal Jackson’s Dangerous song but let me tell you this song is not for you. 
Never jump over some high elevated places or walking somewhere at some heights as it can disasters. 

4. Don’t go to site at night without High Visibility Safety Jacket

If you have to work during night times, as at any site the lighting arrangement is not always up to the mark so if you are crossing some vehicular passage without wearing any reflective safety jacket then you might be dragged into trouble and chances are that you might hit by some vehicle. 

5. Don’t Do anything Haphazardly 

I have faced this problem, every time you try to start some activity without proper planning or arrangements or in a hurry you will surely meet some unexpected outcome which will waste time, energy and resources. Chances are that you might lose your job or you will face the dirty words of your immediate boss. 

So before starting any activity make a proper plan and methodology; for this I have observed one practice that before starting any major activity contractor prepares a method statement / methodology and submit it to the consultant for approval. After proper approval the activity is started as per the submitted document. 

Read all the relevant documents / technical specification, drawings both shop and construction drawings. If you are working as a leader of the team than assign each small activities to an individual. 

6. Don’t take all decisions on your own 

You know what decision means responsibility, if you are taking any decision than you should first properly go through any possible consequences. If you have faced any technical problem at site then before solving any activity you should try to get approval from your construction manager or project manager or even CRE whoever is your immediate boss so as to share the responsibility with them.

We all know that it is different to design / plan something in a serene environment of office than implementing the same at ruthless working site. Therefore you are liable to face problems / difficulties and from time to time your engineered aptitude would be tested. 

7. Don’t skip your lunch or Food in the midway of your Working Shift

This is a very common mistake I have witnessed, committed by engineers working at site. Although the reasons are sometimes valid; like not have much time or not that great quality of luxurious food but after all you are expected to reach the fullest of your potential at site and that is only possible if you get proper fuel in terms of food and energy. Be well hydrated take plenty of water as working in hot environment will waste much of your water in the body.

If you think that quality of food available at site is not good then you can take your lunch food in lunch boxes while coming from home. If you live at site then you can take the same amount of food you cooked at night in the morning. 

8. Don’t ever go near heavy moving machinery or underneath them 

I have witnessed so many disasters due to neglecting the above titled DON’T, going near the radius for movement of heavy excavator, walking underneath the hooks of crane lifting different things; this is always to be avoided. 
You can never completely rely on the manmade machines; they can go wrong any time so it is better to avoid indulging in such tricks to inspire others. 

9. Don’t ever walk on site without seeing your path

I have witnessed many troubles due to this reason, in one of our project pilling work was underway, auger has bored one pile and was preparing to bore the other one in the meanwhile one of the labor walking by while looking somewhere else fell into the pile and was fortunately rescued after hours of hard work. 

So never ever try to be a batman because you can’t see everywhere while having just two eyes. 

I Know there are so many other Don’ts your mind might have, so buddy keep sharing them, instantly post them in comments and let us include it here for other enginers to get benefit from. 

The art of covering the surface of masonry work with a suitable material is called plastering. 

A fine paste of mortar made by mixing cement with sand or fat lime with sand or surkhi in addition to sufficient quantity of water if called plaster. 


When cement is used as a binding material, the plaster is called cement plaster and if lime is used as the binding material, it is called lime plaster. An ideal plaster should be smooth, non absorbent and washable. It should not be affected by weathering agencies.

The finished surface of walls constructed in bricks or stones are generally so coarse textured that they provide unsuitable finish for the internal walls of most of the buildings. These surfaces are rendered smooth by the application of one or two coats of plaster. The ceilings are also rendered smooth with plaster.

The object of external plastering is to cover the surface to enable it to resist the effect of weathering agencies. However, a good brick work made of sound, well burnt bricks or neat stone masonry constructed of durable stones does not require external plastering.

The object of internal plastering is to provide a smooth surface in which dust and dirt cannot lodge and to form a smooth surface for applying white or color wash, distemper or paint.

TYPES OF PLASTERING

1. CEMENT PLASTERING

The mix ratio of mortar in case of cement plastering depends upon the nature of the work to be plastered. 
For rich plastering work at sensitive places (e.g. in side bathrooms, W.C. etc.), 1:3 cement plaster mix is used. For general plastering of walls 1:5 to 1:8 cement plaster mixes are used.

Preparing the surface

Before applying the plaster, the surface should be prepared properly. The joint of masonry are properly raked to a depth of 10 to 15 mm to provide key to plaster. The surface is then thoroughly wetted with water, washed well and kept wet for six hours. When the surface is ready, plaster is applied.

Applying the plaster 

Cement plastering may be applied in one or two coats.In case of plastering of single coat, the mortar is dashed against the prepared surface into a uniform thickness with the help of trowel.Wooden screeds 7.5 cm wide and of required thickness of the plasters are generally fixed vertically 2.4 to 3 m apart to act as gauges guides in order to keep the plaster to the required thickness. Careful plumbing should be done in fixing of these screeds.

Surplus mortar is removed with the help of mason’s straight edge and then the mortar is pressed well with a wooden float so that mortar may fill in the joints of the masonry. The surface is then finally polished with a trowel or iron float. The thickness of this coat should not be more than 16 mm.
In case plastering is to be done in two coats the first coat is applied as described above with the only difference that it is not polished. Before applying the second coat, the first coat is allowed to set but it would not become dry and it is also roughened with a scratching tool to provide key to the second coat. 

The second coat is then applied in a thin layer not exceeding 3 mm in thickness within 48 hours. It is then well trowelled and rubbed perfectly smooth with the help of a steel float. It is then allowed to set for 2 days and cured for more than 7 days.

Suitability

 This type of plastering forms an ideal coating for external finishings. It is also used for internal renderings of common as well as important buildings. It is specially suited for damp conditions i.e. bathrooms, etc.

2. LIME PLASTERING

The proportioning of the ingredients of a lime plaster is adopted according to the number of coats to be applied. If the plaster is to be applied in one coat, 1 part of lime to 1.5 parts of sand is used. If two coats are to be applied, the proportion for the first coat is same as above while the second coat consists of two parts of lime and one part of sand.

If three coats are to be applied, the proportion of the third coat consists of 4 parts of lime to one part of sand.In actual practice, all the coats consist of 1 part of lime to 2 part of sand. Thickness of the lime plaster varies from 15mm to 20mm. 

Preparing the surface 

The method of preparing the surface is same as described in case of cement plastering.

Application of first coat

It is applied by dashing the lime plaster with the help of trowel against the wall surface between the screeds. Plaster is pressed well in the joints. Function of this coat is to fill all the irregularities of the surface. Average thickness of this coat is 10 to 12 mm. It is then left to dry for 3 to 4 days.
Application of second coat
Before applying this coat, the first coat is well washed and scratched over with the edge of a trowel. The second coat is then pressed against the wall with mason’s trowel and rubbed with a straight edge. Thickness of this coat is 6 to 10 mm.
Application of final and finishing coat 
This coat usually consists of  fat lime which is called lime putty. It is applied on the second coat, made perfectly plain and then rubbed first with wooden float and then with a steel float to polish the surface, It is about 3 to 6 mm in thickness. It is allowed to dry for two days and then the surface is cured for 7 to 10 days.

Suitability 

This type of plastering is suitable for internal renderings of buildings. But it is not commonly adopted these days.

3. MUD PLASTERING

The wall surface is first prepared as described in case of cement plastering. The mud plaster is then evenly dashed against the wall surface with a wooden float. After 24 hours, the surface is tamped. The function of tamping is to compact the layer and to drive it deep into the joints. It also helps to avoid developments of cracks due to hollows.

After tamping, water is sprinkled slightly and the surface is polished with a steel trowel. A thin wash of cow dung is then given and tamping is done again at the places where small cracks have formed. Finally the surface is given a wash of fine white earth and cow-dung. Sometimes, surface is given a wash of fine earth, cow dung and cement in proportion of 3 : 2 : 1.

Suitability

This type of plastering is done on walls of temporary sheds and country side buildings.

4. STUCCO PLASTERING

This is special type of plaster.Stucco is the name given to a decorative type of plaster which provides an excellent finish like that with marble lining. After preparing the surface, stucco plastering is applied in three coats. Each coat should be permitted to dry thoroughly before applying the next coat.
For internal surface, the first coat also known as scratch coat consists of lime plaster 12 mm in thickness.The second coat or brown coat consists of rich lime plastering in 10 mm thickness. The final coat or finishing coat consists of a mixture of very fine lime and white ground stone ( marble or quartz), 3 mm in thickness. It is carefully polished with a bag of linen containing moist chalk in the first instance and then chalk and oil. The surface is then finally finished by rubbing it with only oil as to make it smooth and bright.

For external surfaces, the first and second coats are 10 to12 mm thick and the finishing coat is 3 to 6 mm thick. The proportion of ingredients for the first two coats is 1 part of cement to 3 parts of sand with 10% by weight of hydrated lime. The finishing coat consists of 1 part of cement and 2 pars of sand in which some coloring pigment is added or colored cement is used.
Method of applying this plaster is same as described in case of cement or lime plastering.

Suitability

This type of plastering is suitable for external as well as internal surfaces of buildings to provide an excellent finish.

5. MOUGHAL PLASTERING

It is generally applied in two coats of lime mortar by mixing lime, sand and surkhi in the ratio of 4:3:1 along with glue and powdered gull nut. The surface is well wetted and the second coat of about 1.25 mm thickness is applied when the first coat is hardened. The finished plastered surface is kept wet for 3 weeks.

 Suitability

This type of plastering is suitable for internal surfaces of high class buildings but it is not commonly applied these days.

The placing of a building with respect to the geographical directions, the direction of the wind, and the path of the sun, is known as the "Orientation of buildings".



The building should be placed in such a way that it derives maximum benefit from sun, air, rain, and nature and at the same time, it is protected from their harmful effects.
The orientation also includes the arrangement of rooms of a building, so as to provide natural comforts to the residents. 
Orientation requires first priority after selection of site, for proper planning and design of a building.

(1) SURROUNDING OF THE SITE
The building is to be orientated to suit the surroundings of the site.
(2) PROXIMITY OF A ROAD OR STREET
The building should be so orientated, as to provide easy approach from the nearby road or street.
(3) THE SUN
The sun is a source of natural light and temperature. 
Sunlight is a powerful agent for killing the germs of harmful diseases like, tuberculosis, typhoid, cholera, etc., which may, otherwise, breed in the dark and damp corners of a building. 
It is, therefore, essential to orientate the building such that the sun rays may fall sufficiently on the building and enters the building through doors and windows. However in summer, the building should also be protected from its severe heat.


(4) WIND
The building should be so orientated that cool breeze enters the bedrooms during night in summer but not in winter. 
It should also prevent direct entry of wind of heavy intensity into the building, so as to protect the residents from dust nuisance.
(5) RAIN
The building should be so orientated, so as to prevent entry of rain inside the rooms. 
It should also provide minimum portion of the building subjected to direct showers of rain, so as to prevent dampness inside the building.
Orientation of Building in Different Regions
The climatic conditions, intensity of sun and direction of wind differ from region to region. It is, therefore, not possible to follow a rigid method, with regard to the orientation of buildings.
In general the Earth's surface is divided into three different regions with respect to the orientation of buildings. In these regions, the orientation is discussed separately
In Hot and Arid Regions 
In these regions, the climate is extreme; the temperature ranges from 50 C0 maximum to 36 C0 minimum, or, more or less. 
Cloudless sky, low humidity, and high incidence of Sun's glare are the main features. 
The sunny areas are hot and dry in the day time and cool to cold at night. 
As far as possible, the building should be protected from day time heat and glare during summer and at the same time, the rate of heat loss at night during winter should be reduced. 
In these regions the building should be oriented for the Sun, not for wind as in humid regions.
The following points should be kept in mind while orientating building in such areas:
To minimize the heat gain during summer and take benefit for solar heat during winter, the longer walls should face north and south and shorter walls, east and west, so the least wall area is exposed to the slanting rays of Sun during fore noon and afternoon. 
In other words, we can say that the longer axis of building should run east west, so as to avoid excessive heat from west side.
Provision of projections on the southern walls will give sufficient shade to the walls during summer and provision of windows and openings on the southern wall will allow sunrays to enter into rooms during winter, because the Sun's altitude is high in summers and low in winters.
Verandahs are desired on the south for protection from heat in summers and, also, for sitting out purposes in winter to enjoy the Sun's heat.
Openings in the west should be small and should be properly orientated. ( To save cost of verandah on the west, the afternoon's Sun may be kept off by providing Louvers, which are ventilators, sometimes provided in windows also, in which horizontal sloping slats allow ventilation but exclude rain and Sun's rays.)
A small tilt in the axis of the building must be given away from the west towards the south (facing near about north-west), to get maximum benefit of breeze during rainy season, autumn, and spring to ensure comfort and proper ventilation.
Hot and Humid Regions 
In this region the climate is humid, temperature in summer is moderately high and rainfall is heavy. 
The prime object for orientation and design of buildings in this region is to provide free air movement through the building and to prevent the temperature rise of its inside surface above the shade temperature.
The following aspects should be considered while designing buildings in these areas:
The building should face the direction of the prevailing wind to obtain maximum benefit of the air movement. 
A tilt, up to 45 degree may be allowed, if required, for which the loss of efficiency is only up to 20%.
Window sills should be low to ensure maximum ventilation at the normal living level.
Walls should be shaded from the sun, so as to prevent the temperature rise.
Protection of openings against rain is also necessary.
Building should normally have open planning, as far as possible. They should be of one room thickness, so as to ensure thorough ventilation.
Hilly Regions 
In these regions, temperature is usually much low and cold dominates according to the increasing altitude. 
There is marked drop in the temperature during night.
The following points should be kept in mind while orientating building in such areas:
(1) The buildings should be located in the southern slope of the hill, as they receive maximum sunshine for the greatest duration of time.
(2) The opening should be placed as to allow sunshine inside the building.
(3) A massive structure with high heat capacity is useful because the heat, it stores during the day is welcome, except in very hot day.
(4) It is necessary to provide ceilings of good thermal insulation to reduce loss of heat by radiation during night.
(5) In areas, with heavy snowfall, the roof should be kept sloping to prevent accumulation of snow.

Bahria Town (Pvt) Ltd, a vibrant and dynamic leader in the construction industry requires the services of following staff for different project based in Karachi; 



1. Senior Manager Infrastructure 
2. (BSC/ MSc) Civil Engineering 
3. Minimum 15 years of experience of developing infrastructures works of housing society. Well familiar with earth work. Well aware and successful in cross cultural working environment strong project people and analytical skills

1. Project Manager Infrastructure
2. (BSC/ MSc) Civil Engineering 
3. Minimum 10-12 years of experience of developing infrastructures works of housing society. Well familiar with earth work. Well aware and successful in cross cultural working environment strong project people and analytical skills

4. Construction Manager Infrastructure
5. DAE / B-Tech Civil
6. Minimum 10-12 years of experience of development of large societies should be able to handle earth moving equipment

Only candidates with required relevant experience may send their updated CV with recent passport sized photograph before 03 April, 2017 to 
Human Resource Department, 
Bahria Town (Pvt) Ltd, Customer Support Center,
Phase-VIII Bahria Town Rawalpindi 

Email: hrd@bahriatown.com.pk

 


Applications are invited from the Punjab Domiciled Pakistanis for the following posts for UET Lahore and its Campuses on contract basis: 



1. Name of Post: Director Planning & Development 
2. Qualification & Experience: Ph.D with 5 years experience in field of Planning and Development or M.Sc in civil engineering with 10 years experience in field of planning and development 
3. Position of posting: Lahore 

1. Name of Post: Project Director (Civil) 
2. Qualification & Experience: B.Sc. Civil Engineering from a recognized university or equivalent qualification with 13 years experience in civil works
3. Position of posting: KSK

1. Name of Post: Executive Engineer (Civil) 
2. Qualification & Experience: B.Sc. in civil engineering from a recognized university with 7 years of professional experience 
3. Position: LHR / FSD / RCET

1. Name of Post: Assistant Engineer (Civil) 
2. Qualification & Experience: B.Sc. Civil Engineering 
3. Position: LHR / FSD / RCET

Visit the website jobs.uet.edu.pk, fill online form, upload photograph, print application and attach relevant document, attach band draft/challan of Rs. 300 in favor of Treasurer of UET
Last Date to apply: 05-04-2017

In translation of the Chief Minister’s vision to provide our youth with healthy, modern and high potential sports opportunities, the Punjab Sports Board is in the process of team acquisition which shall become part of the Project Management Unit (PMU, specially constituted for on-ground timely delivery of envisaged facilities i.e. Cricket, Football and Hockey Stadium throughout Punjab. Applications are hence, invited from the dynamic, motivated and self-driven individuals who are willing to carry out extensive field work and put in long hours of work with full dedication against following position:-



1. Name of Position: Sub-Engineer 
2. No. of Positions :03
3. Place of posting: Lahore, Rawalpindi, Multan
4. Qualification: DAE (Civil) having minimum 10 years experience in building construction 
5. Max Age Limit: 35 years
6. Salary (L.S): Rs. 75,000/-
7. Nature of Post: 03 years contract

Application typed on Plain Paper along with CV, domicile certificate, experience certificate, 3 recent passport size photographs and copies of educational testimonials (duly tested / verified) should reach the office of Director General sports, Punjab, National Hockey Stadium, Nishtar Park Sports Complex, Ferozpur road, Lahore
8. Last Date to apply: 04-04-2017

The placing of a building with respect to the geographical directions, the direction of the wind, and the path of the sun, is known as the "Orientation of buildings".


The building should be placed in such a way that it derives maximum benefit from sun, air, rain, and nature and at the same time, it is protected from their harmful effects.
The orientation also includes the arrangement of rooms of a building, so as to provide natural comforts to the residents. 
Orientation requires first priority after selection of site, for proper planning and design of a building.




(1) SURROUNDING OF THE SITE
The building is to be orientated to suit the surroundings of the site.
(2) PROXIMITY OF A ROAD OR STREET
The building should be so orientated, as to provide easy approach from the nearby road or street.
(3) THE SUN
The sun is a source of natural light and temperature. 
Sunlight is a powerful agent for killing the germs of harmful diseases like, tuberculosis, typhoid, cholera, etc., which may, otherwise, breed in the dark and damp corners of a building. 
It is, therefore, essential to orientate the building such that the sun rays may fall sufficiently on the building and enters the building through doors and windows. However in summer, the building should also be protected from its severe heat.


(4) WIND
The building should be so orientated that cool breeze enters the bedrooms during night in summer but not in winter. 
It should also prevent direct entry of wind of heavy intensity into the building, so as to protect the residents from dust nuisance.
(5) RAIN
The building should be so orientated, so as to prevent entry of rain inside the rooms. 
It should also provide minimum portion of the building subjected to direct showers of rain, so as to prevent dampness inside the building.
Orientation of Building in Different Regions
The climatic conditions, intensity of sun and direction of wind differ from region to region. It is, therefore, not possible to follow a rigid method, with regard to the orientation of buildings.
In general the Earth's surface is divided into three different regions with respect to the orientation of buildings. In these regions, the orientation is discussed separately
In Hot and Arid Regions 
In these regions, the climate is extreme; the temperature ranges from 50 C0 maximum to 36 C0 minimum, or, more or less. 
Cloudless sky, low humidity, and high incidence of Sun's glare are the main features. 
The sunny areas are hot and dry in the day time and cool to cold at night. 
As far as possible, the building should be protected from day time heat and glare during summer and at the same time, the rate of heat loss at night during winter should be reduced. 
In these regions the building should be oriented for the Sun, not for wind as in humid regions.
The following points should be kept in mind while orientating building in such areas:
To minimize the heat gain during summer and take benefit for solar heat during winter, the longer walls should face north and south and shorter walls, east and west, so the least wall area is exposed to the slanting rays of Sun during fore noon and afternoon. 
In other words, we can say that the longer axis of building should run east west, so as to avoid excessive heat from west side.
Provision of projections on the southern walls will give sufficient shade to the walls during summer and provision of windows and openings on the southern wall will allow sunrays to enter into rooms during winter, because the Sun's altitude is high in summers and low in winters.
Verandahs are desired on the south for protection from heat in summers and, also, for sitting out purposes in winter to enjoy the Sun's heat.
Openings in the west should be small and should be properly orientated. ( To save cost of verandah on the west, the afternoon's Sun may be kept off by providing Louvers, which are ventilators, sometimes provided in windows also, in which horizontal sloping slats allow ventilation but exclude rain and Sun's rays.)
A small tilt in the axis of the building must be given away from the west towards the south (facing near about north-west), to get maximum benefit of breeze during rainy season, autumn, and spring to ensure comfort and proper ventilation.
Hot and Humid Regions 
In this region the climate is humid, temperature in summer is moderately high and rainfall is heavy. 
The prime object for orientation and design of buildings in this region is to provide free air movement through the building and to prevent the temperature rise of its inside surface above the shade temperature.
The following aspects should be considered while designing buildings in these areas:
The building should face the direction of the prevailing wind to obtain maximum benefit of the air movement. 
A tilt, up to 45 degree may be allowed, if required, for which the loss of efficiency is only up to 20%.
Window sills should be low to ensure maximum ventilation at the normal living level.
Walls should be shaded from the sun, so as to prevent the temperature rise.
Protection of openings against rain is also necessary.
Building should normally have open planning, as far as possible. They should be of one room thickness, so as to ensure thorough ventilation.
Hilly Regions 
In these regions, temperature is usually much low and cold dominates according to the increasing altitude. 
There is marked drop in the temperature during night.
The following points should be kept in mind while orientating building in such areas:
(1) The buildings should be located in the southern slope of the hill, as they receive maximum sunshine for the greatest duration of time.
(2) The opening should be placed as to allow sunshine inside the building.
(3) A massive structure with high heat capacity is useful because the heat, it stores during the day is welcome, except in very hot day.
(4) It is necessary to provide ceilings of good thermal insulation to reduce loss of heat by radiation during night.
(5) In areas, with heavy snowfall, the roof should be kept sloping to prevent accumulation of snow.


The site of a building greatly affects its planning, design and construction. 


It may be selected as required or accepted as available. 
The selection of site depends upon the purpose for which the proposed building is to be constructed.

(1) LEVEL OF THE SITE

The level of the site must be higher than that of its surroundings, so as to provide good drainage.

(2) CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

The intensity of rainfall and sub-soil water level should be low, so as to avoid dampness in the building.

(3) SUB-SOIL CONDITIONS

A hard stratum should be available at a reasonable depth (3ft to 4 ft from the ground level), so as, to construct the foundations of the building safely and economically.

(4) AVAILABILITY OF MODERN AMENITIES

The site must be within municipal limits, so that, modern amenities like, water supply, electricity, sewerage, roads, etc. can be made available with more ease, if there is no provisions at present.

(5) AVAILABILITY OF OTHER FACILITIES

The site should provide an easy access from the nearest road and offer sufficient light and air. There should be good and cheap transport facilities available near the site. It is always better, if public services like, fire brigade, police station, etc, are also not very far off from the site.

(6) SURROUNDINGS

The situation and surroundings of the site must be such as to suit the purpose for which the building is to be constructed. Each type of building requires different surroundings, than for others.

Precautions that must be kept in Mind While Site Selection

(1) The site consisting of reclaimed soil (made useful for cultivation) should be avoided, as far as possible.
(2) The site must not be located in water logged areas or near the bank of a river.
(3) Old quarry sites must be avoided, as far as possible.
(4) The site for a residential building should be away from the area causing foul odor or smoke nuisance due to industrial buildings.
(5) The site for a residential building, school or hospital should be away from noisy areas.
(6) There should be no disabling easement. 
(Easement is a right, which a person may have over another man's land by law, such as, the right to walk over it or to run a pipe through it).

(1) Stone is stronger and more durable than brick and for public buildings; it is decidedly more suitable than brick. It reflects strength in every inch of it. It is in tune with nature. Its color improves and looks more serene with age.


On the other hand, brick is an artificial product made as a copy of stone. It is flimsy material and plastering is only a camouflage for its defects.
(2) Stone is water proof. On the other hand, Brick absorbs moisture and with dampness certain salts rise in the walls from the ground and cause disintegration of bricks. 
Especially brick should not be allowed to come in contact with urine or sewage and in such places it must always be covered with cement plaster or any other protective coat.
(3) Brick offers greater facility for ornamental work in plaster as a rough shape can first be given to it by means of any tool. This is not so in case of stones.
(4) Plaster does not stick so well to stones as it does to brick.
(5) On account of the regular shape and uniform size of brick, a proper bond can be obtained with comparative ease.
(6) Due to the handy size of brick, brick masonry can be more rapidly constructed than stone masonry.
(7) Brick wall requires a fixed quantity of mortar and even with careless masons, the regular shape of the brick considerably reduces the possibility of hollows being left in the body of the wall. This is not so with some stone walls.
(8) It is possible to build brick walls of any thickness e.g., 4 1/2 in, 3 in, 9 in, 13 1/2 inch etc. Whereas, the minimum thickness of ordinary stone wall is 15 in. Stone walls of a smaller thickness than 15 in, have to be constructed with properly dressed stones, which involves a comparatively high cost.
(9) Brick does not absorb as much heat as stone does. So, brick is more fire resistant than stone.

(1) Stone is stronger and more durable than brick and for public buildings; it is decidedly more suitable than brick. It reflects strength in every inch of it. It is in tune with nature. Its color improves and looks more serene with age.


On the other hand, brick is an artificial product made as a copy of stone. It is flimsy material and plastering is only a camouflage for its defects.
(2) Stone is water proof. On the other hand, Brick absorbs moisture and with dampness certain salts rise in the walls from the ground and cause disintegration of bricks. 
Especially brick should not be allowed to come in contact with urine or sewage and in such places it must always be covered with cement plaster or any other protective coat.
(3) Brick offers greater facility for ornamental work in plaster as a rough shape can first be given to it by means of any tool. This is not so in case of stones.
(4) Plaster does not stick so well to stones as it does to brick.
(5) On account of the regular shape and uniform size of brick, a proper bond can be obtained with comparative ease.
(6) Due to the handy size of brick, brick masonry can be more rapidly constructed than stone masonry.
(7) Brick wall requires a fixed quantity of mortar and even with careless masons, the regular shape of the brick considerably reduces the possibility of hollows being left in the body of the wall. This is not so with some stone walls.
(8) It is possible to build brick walls of any thickness e.g., 4 1/2 in, 3 in, 9 in, 13 1/2 inch etc. Whereas, the minimum thickness of ordinary stone wall is 15 in. Stone walls of a smaller thickness than 15 in, have to be constructed with properly dressed stones, which involves a comparatively high cost.
(9) Brick does not absorb as much heat as stone does. So, brick is more fire resistant than stone.





University of Engineering and Technology hereby offers Full Time  /Part Time PhD Admission in Civil Engineering. 
Eligibility Criteria
1. phD Program shall be open to the candidates who have Bachelor’s and Master’s degree in relevant engineering disciplines / specializations recognized by the University with minimum CPGA 3.0 / 4.00 or First division in MSc Engineering. Candidates must qualify university locally developed Test with at least 60% cumulative score. 
Scholarships 
Rs. 60,000 – per month scholarship is available for selected Full Time PhD Scholars for 36 months from the date of enrollment. The Endowment Fund Scholarship Rs. 60,000 per month is also available. 
Submission of Application 
Application form along with requisite documents and Postal Order / Bank Draft of Rs. 1000 /- non refundable in favor of Treasurer UET Taxila is payable at HBL UET Taxila, be submitted to the office eof the Dean of the concerned faculty as per schedule given below ; 
Last date of submission of application form: 27-03-2017
University locally developed test: 03-04-2017 10.00 am. 
Interview 10-04-2017
Display of list of selected candidates: 17-04-2017
Last date of registration: 24-04-2017

Civil Engineer required in M/S Amanat Hussain & Co. (pvt) ltd. 
Applications are invited for the following positions in projects latest by 20 March, 2017.




1. Name of Positions:  Site Engineer (Civil) 
2. No. of Positions: 08 
3. Qualification / Experience:  DAE Civil with minimum 8 to 12 years experience in execution of Building Projects. 

1. Name of Position: Construction Manager
2. No. of positions: 03
3. Qualification / Experience: DAE Civil with minimum 10 to 5 years experience in execution of Building Projects

1. Name of Position: Quantity Surveyor 
2. No. of positions: 02
3. Qualification / Experience: DAE Civil with minimum 10 to 5 years experience in execution of Building Projects

1. Name of Position: Surveyor 
2. No. of positions: 02
3. Qualification / Experience: DAE Civil with minimum 8 years experience in execution of Building Projects
How to Apply: Send your resume and documents at M/S Amanat Hussain & Co. (Pvt) Ltd – House # 654, Street # 7, Main Imran Khan Avenue Chaklala, Scheme-III Rawalpinidi 
Or Email 
Email: jobs@ahc.net.pk or apply online at ahc.net.pk 
 Last Date to Apply: 20 March, 2017


Headquarters Project Directorate North of National Logistics Cell (NLC) requires the services of following staff for Metro Bus Islamabad Project (Peshawar Morr to Golra Morr) on immediate Basis 



1. Name of Position: Senior Quantity Surveyor 
2. Number of Position: 01 
3. Qualification:  B.E. (Civil) with 5 years experience of Quantity Surveyor in infrastructures / Roads / Bridge Projects. Must have experience of working on Mega Projects. Must know preparation of IPCs, processing of check requests. Preparation and Processing of BOQs. Must have worked with NHA Projects. 


1. Name of Position: Civil Engineer (Bridges) 
2. No. of Positions : 01
3. Qualification / Experience: MSC  / B.E. (Civil) with minimum 5 years of experience in Bridge construction projects,  must have experience on Mega Projects. 

1. Name of Position: Civil Engineer (Structures) 
2. No. of Positions: 01
3. MSC / B.E. (Civil) with 5 years of experience. Must have worked on mega roads / structures projects. 
Interviews will be conducted on 19 March 2017 at 11:00 AM to 3:30 PM at Headquarters Project Directorate North, National Logistics Cell, Sowan Camp Rawalpindi. 
All candidates must bring their CVs, one set of attested photocopies of educational documents, diplomas, experience certificate, CNIC along with 2 x Passport Size Photographs, photo copy of discharge book (in case of retired army personnel) at the time of interview. Age relaxation will be up to 65 years. No. TA / DA will be admissible for interview. 
CVs can also be send to zeeshan.malik@nlc.com.pk

Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto accident and Emergency Civil Hospital Karachi required services of civil Diploma Associate Engineer :



1. Name of Job: Supervisor (Civil) 
2. NO. of Posts : Not mentioned
3. Qualification: 03 years diploma of Associate Engineer (Civil) form any recognized technical institute.
4. Age Limit: 35 Years
5. Domicile: Sindh
6. Last Date to Apply: 27 – March  - 2017
7. Apply online on the website of the hospital : www.chk.gov.pk


GHS waste Management Company established with a vision to modernize the Solid Waste Management System in the city, provides a unique opportunity for professionals to work in an excellent environment and offers competitive market based salary with potential for professional growth.




 Applications are invited for the following challenging positions:- 

1. Name of Post: Project Manager 
2. Company: GHS Waste Management Company, Lahore
3. No. of Post(s): 01 Only 
4. Qualification / Experience : Masters in Engineering (Civil, Environmental, Mechanical) with minimum 15 years of experience in Environment Sector including 5 years experience in Project Management 
5. How to Apply : Please email your Cvs at ghs.swm@gmail.com and mention the position in Subject time, 
6. Address: 14-Sarwar Road, Lahore Cantt, 0300-0405955
7. Contact: 0320-22 77 275, 0300-04 05 955

Sub Engineer (DAE) Diploma Civil Required in Gilgit-Baltistan Water and Power Department 
Applications are invited from eligible candidates having domicile of Gilgit Baltistan to fill the vacant posts on regular basis in Water & Power Development Depart GB




1. Name of Post: Sub-Engineer Civil (BS-11)
2. Qualification:  03 years Diploma in Civil Engineering from any recognized Government Technical Board. 
3. Age limit: 18-33
4. No. of Posts : 09
5. How to apply: Application addressing to Deputy Secretary (W&P) should be posted to KIU Gilgit by post or by hand within 15 days along with attested copies of CNIC, Educational Testimonials, Domicile Certificate, Experience Certificate (if any) , with 2 recent passport sized photographs. 

Sampak International a private consultant firm required following staff for their Islamabad Project. 
1. Name of Post: Material Engineer
2. Experience: 5- Years experience of QA/QC 



1. Name of Post: Assistant Resident Engineer
2. Education:  BS Civil Engineering
3. Experience: 05 years experience in building works. 
Selected person will be given market based salary with food and accommodation. 

Apply at 
  engr.mahsankhan@gmail.com

Laar Humanitarian & Development Program  (LHDP) is a non-government organizations (NGO) recognized at national level LHDP require the services of highly motivated men & women staff for the project titled; 




“Securing water rights and use for farmers in Mirpurkhas” 

The interested candidates holding the relevant qualifications and experience are requested to send their CVs before March 17, 2017 through email at jobs@lhdp-pakistan.org

1. Name of Post: Civil Engineer
2. Company: Laar Humanitarian & Development Program 
3. No. of Positions: o1 
4. Qualficiation: B.E. Civil
5. Experience: 5-4 years (with irrigation experience) 
6. How to apply: Email at jobs@lhdp-pakistan.org
7. Last Date to apply: March 17, 2017

A pavement is a hard crust constructed over the natural soil for the purpose of providing stable and even surface for eh vehicles. The pavement supports and distributes the wheel loads and provides an adequate wearing surface. Pavements are basically of three types; 

Flexible Pavements 
Rigid Pavements 
Semi-Flexible Pavements 



The design of pavement is a very critical and decisive activity for any road construction project. The success or failure of the pavement is directly depending on whether its design is as per the requirement of traffic and if the objectives of design have been met or not. Today in this post we will be dealing with the factors directly affecting the design of pavement; 

Wheel Load 

The thickness of the pavement depends upon the design wheel load. The design wheel load is selected after considering the actual wheel loads of the various vehicles, contact pressure, load repetition, the dynamic effects and many other factors. The design wheel load will depend upon the multiple – wheel load assembly, as in the dual or multiple wheel loads. 

Sub-grade 

The thickness of the pavement depends upon the properties of the sub-grade. A thicker pavement is required over a weaker soil. The thickness also depends upon the stress-strain characteristics of the soil under static and repeated loads. 

As the strength and the volume change of the soil depend upon the moisture changes, the worst conditions should be considered in the design. 

Climate

The climatic factors, such as rainfall and temperature changes, affect the properties of the soil. The rainfall affects the moisture changes in the soil which after the strength. The temperature changes affect the pavement. In flexible pavement, the choice of the bituminous binder depends upon the temperature. In rigid pavements, the warping stresses are caused by temperature changes. 

IF the temperature is likely to fall to the freezing point, the possibility of the frost action is to be considered.

Pavement Material

The stress distribution in the pavement layers depends upon the behavior of the materials used. The fatigue behavior of the pavement materials and their durability under adverse condition should be considered. 

Aggregates bear the stresses occurring in the pavement and have to resist wear due to abrasive action of the traffic. The aggregate should be hard, strong and of the required size and gradation to bear the stresses. 
Location

The design of the pavement should be done considering its location with respect to the ground surface. The height of embankment, the depth of cutting and the level of water table should also be considered. All these factors affect the performance of the pavement.

Miscellaneous Factors 

There are some special factors which affect the design of pavement. For example, in case of semi-rigid pavement, the formation of shrinkage cracks, the crack pattern and the mode of their propagation should be considered in its design. 

In our previous posts we have already explained what bar bending schedule is? What information does a bar bending schedule provides? How to calculate and estimate the bar bending schedule of a simple beam.

Today in this post we will be going to establish bar bending schedule of a circular slab.

As the Bar bending Schedule for a circular slab is not that easy as it looks like; We can use AutoCAD to speed up the process; however, we cannot neglect completely the manual calculations as computer is sometimes not available in a limited resource projects.

So this post deals with both the method on how to establish bar bending schedule of a circular slab with manual calculation using Pythagoras theorem and simple triangle solutions.

So let us first go for the manual calculation of the bar bending schedule of Circular Slab:-

By Manual Calculation 


General Layout of Reinforcement for a Circular Slab
General Layout of Reinforcement for a Circular Slab

In the above Figure a slab is shown of 5 meters diameter which have rebar of #5 @ 150 C/C

The total diameter of the slab is 5 meters therefore the no. of rebar for the slab would come as ;-


Sometimes +1 is recommended in above equation just for ensuring sufficient numbers; however, here in order to avoid congestion it is avoided.

Arrangement of Rebars
Arrangement of Rebars

The arrangement of these 33 bars are shown in above figure; 1 rebar is at the center / middle of the slab while 16 rebars are upside and 16 are downside of the diagram.
The 16 bars upside and downside are identical.

Calculation by Using Pythagoras Theorem and Solving Triangle 

Finding the Chord Length of a Circular Slab
Finding the Chord Length of a Circular Slab


We will use the arrangement as shown in above figure to calculate the length of the chord at any distance from the center. Consider Triangle ABC as shown in above figure;



Thus,

AS x which is the distance of the chord form the center is already known; thus we will solve above equation for L which is half of the chord;


To calculate the length of chord we will multiply above equation with 2;



To calculate the length of rebar we will subtract the cover from both ends which is 25 mm thus 50 mm will be subtracted; in other words the length of rebar at any distance x from the center would be ;



For our base slab; above equation would be;



Distances of Reinforcement from Center of Circular Slab
Distances of Reinforcement from Center of Circular Slab


For Middle Rebar



For Next rebar upside (using above equation derived)

Taking x = 150


Taking x = 300


Same procedure is adopted to get the length of all the rebars;

Calculating Unit Weight of Rebar

For unit weight of #5 diameter rebar;






 We can use the above unit weight to calculate the weight of rebar by multiplying it with length.

The final Bar bending schedule is calculated using excel sheet and is provided here;

You can also download the excel sheet.

VIP ITEMs for Members Only 

If you are our affiliate member you have gifts from iamcivilengineer.com; You can download the Complete Bar Bending Schedule in Excel Sheet form;


Engineering Drawing, also called technical drawing and engineering graphics, is the graphical representation of shape of any physical object which may be a part of a machine, a building, a dam, or any other complicated structure. The shape of some simple objects like spheres, cubes, cylinders, etc., may be described in words and sentences but ordinary language fails for complicated objects.



Concrete


Concrete is a mixture of stone particles and some suitable binding material. While in fresh state, concrete is plastic or fluid-like and may be molded in any shape but, with time, it hardens and becomes an artificial stone-like material. Because small stone particles may be “assembled” at site to provide any desired architectural shape and because of relatively lesser cost, concrete is used for most of the construction. 

What are the main Constituents of Concrete?

The main constituents of concrete are described below:- 


  • Binding Materials: It is usually a paste of cement in water and is relatively costly constituent of the concrete. Lime and some other materials may also be used as binding material. 
  • Filler Materials: It is required to reduce the cost and, at the same time, to provide sufficient strength. Most commonly filler material is composed of natural round gravel or crushed stone but other materials like brick-ballast, bloated clay and iron chips may also be used in certain cases, filler material may also be termed as “aggregates”


Within a particular aggregate, particles of all the sizes must be present in a suitable proportion. In other words, the size of aggregate particles should gradually reduce to minimum so that the smaller particles may fill spaces between the larger particles to give a dense mass. It is quite clear that the larger particles must be present in greater proportion. 

Depending upon the particle size, the aggregates may be classified into two categories, coarse and fine aggregates. The portion of aggregate having particle size greater than 3/16 in (5 mm) is called coarse aggregate while the portion having particle size lesser than or equal to 3/16 in is called fine aggregate (or sand). 

What are main types of concrete?


There are two main types of concrete to be used for construction purposes namely Plain Cement Concrete and Reinforced Cement Concrete

Plain Cement Concrete

It is abbreviated as P.C.C. and is the simple concrete without the provision of embedded steel bars (or reinforcement). It is sufficiently strong in compression (internal force corresponding to push on a body) but is weak in tension (internal force corresponding to pull on a body), Ratio of the constituents materials is also written with a particular P.C.C. to be used in the following standard way: - 

P.C.C. (Part of cement : parts of sand: Part of Coarse Aggregate) 
For example, P.C.C. (1:2:4) means that cement content by weight is one out of 7 parts, sand is 2 out of 7 parts and coarse aggregate is 4 out of 7 parts. 

  • Lean Concrete: If the cement content in concrete is lesser than about 10 %, the concrete is called lean concrete and is commonly used under the floors and foundations. P.C.C. (1:4:8) and P.C.C. (1:6:12) are the examples of lean concrete. 
  • Normal Concrete: If the cement content is about 10 to 15 %, the concrete is called normal concrete, the example being P.C.C. (1:2:4). Normal concrete is used in D.P.C., R.C.C. and floor finishes. 
  • Rich Concrete: In Rich concrete, the cement content is more than about 15% as in P.C.C. (1:1.5:3). It is used for R.C.C. when smaller structural members are required to support heavier loads for architectural reasons. 

Telebelt Pouring Concrete
Telebelt Pouring Concrete 

Reinforced Cement Concrete

It is abbreviated as R.C.C. and is defined as the concrete with the addition of steel bars or reinforcement to resist tension. R.C.C. is used for beams, lintels, roof-slabs and concrete columns, etc. 

You would also love to know why steel reinforcement is used in concrete in detail. Follow this link

Mortar: 

Mortar is a material used for plastering of walls and roofs and to join bricks in masonry. Mud mortar and lime mortar were initially used but now-a-days cement sand mortar is most commonly used abbreviated as C/S mortar, its constituents are cement and sand and the ratio of these materials is also specified. For example 1:2 C/S mortar means that cement is one part out of three by weight and sand is two parts out of three by weight. 

Beams: 

Beam is a structural member used to provide support to upper part of the building leaving clear space underneath and to transfer the imposed loads to supports at its ends. Its width is lesser that main dimensions of the building which distinguish it from a roof-slab. Usually the load acts at right angle to the longitudinal axis of the member. 

Lintel Beam in a Building
Lintel Beam in a Building


Main deformation of the beam with the loads is bending. Bending is associated with elongation of the bottom layers and shortening of the top layers. Shortening of the material shows that “push” is acting over it or compression is produced in it. Concrete is sufficiently strong to develop that much compression. Elongation of the material at the bottom shows that “pull” is acting over it or tension is produced in it. 

You may love to know more about what are beams and what are different types of beam; follow this link for that.

Concrete is very weak in tension and if no reinforcement is provided, the beam will crack at the bottom and will fall down. Another example of material strong in compression and weak in tension is an ordinary piece of chalk. When it is pressed from both ends with the fingers, it is very difficult to break it but very little resistance is offered when it is pulled. Remember that push is a force acting towards material whereas pull is a force acting away from the material. 


If we provide steel bars at the bottom of the bream under consideration, it becomes safe as steel is sufficiently strong in tension. When concrete is provided to resist compression and steel to resist tension, the combination may resist any type of load and is called reinforced cement concrete. 

Roof Slab


The term roof slab is used for the actual load carrying part of the roof present as the lowermost layer. 

You may also want to read what are different types of slabs and what are their classifications and what is the cross-sectional details in a slab frame system. Follow this link for that. 

Columns: 


Column is structural member which provide a continuous support for upper part of the building and carries the load directly up to the foundations. In case of a column, the load acts along the longitudinal axis of the member. Column may be made up of bricks, R.C.C. or steel. Its dimensions are lesser than main dimensions of the building which distinguish it form a wall. 

Damp Proof Course (D.P.C); 


Bricks have a porous structure and the pores are interconnected to form capillaries. As a result, bricks suck dampness from the soil underneath and pump it to upper parts of the building under the action of capillary force. With dampness mortar and concrete deteriorate reducing the strength of the structure. With time plaster falls down and surface treatments like white-washing and painting are damaged leading to unpleasant appearance. Further these damp conditions are subject to insect and germ growth and are too good from hygienic point of view. 

You may love to read how different method are used to make walls from many types of dampness. Follow this link for that. 

A continuous water proof layer is provided above the ground level to prevent the moisture to come up which is called damp proof course or simply D.P.C. If there is any direct contact between the underneath soil and brickwork of the superstructure, even for a very small part, whole of the building will be affected. DPC to be provided in walls consists of 1 ½ inches to 3 inches thick layer of P.C.C. (1:2:4) over which two coats of hot bitumen are applied. Sometimes, for load bearing walls, polythene sheet is also provided. The top of DPC is made in level with the ground floor top of the building. 


Brick

It is a structural unit made up of properly burnt clayey soil having the nominal dimensions (including the mortar thickness). 
4 ½ inch x 9” x 3” or 12 cm x 24 xm x 8 cm 
Possible thickness of brick walls is always an integral multiple of 4 ½ inch or ½ brick. 

You may want to read about the different defects in brick masonry and what are their remedies. Follow this link
 You may want to know about the different types of bonds used in brick masonry; follow this link for that.

Ceiling Height (C.H)

Bottom of roof slab is called ceiling. Height of the ceiling from the finished floor level is called ceiling height which normally varies from 8 to 12 ft. In other words, the clear height available inside a building is known as ceiling height. Smaller ceiling height is preferable for multistorey buildings  and for buildings where artificial air-conditioning is to be used. Size of air-conditioners or heaters depends upon volume of the Building. Bigger ceiling height is preferable for single storey buildings for better natural air-conditioning. 

Sill Level  (S.L) 

It is the level of bottom of main windows generally 3 ft. higher than the floor level. In the past, a sill or slab was provided at the bottom of the windows projecting from the wall from which the term S.L. is derived. Now a days this type of sill is not used but the term S.L. is still there and is also important for some other definitions. 

Finished Floor Level (FFL) 

Top level of floor in any part of the building is called finished floor level. It may be different for rooms, verandahs and open areas of a building. Further it is different for different storeys. 
Plinth Level
It is the level of the ground floor top in main part of the building. It is made higher than the ground level by an amount depending upon the following factors with a minimum of 1 ft. 
i. The building must be prevented from the rainwater to come inside the building. 
ii. Drainage of the used water from the building must be easy. 
iii. Future trends in the locality like raising of street and road levels is to be kept in mind. 

Ground Level (G.L) 

It is the level of ground in or near the building which may be natural or developed ground level. 
Super-Structure and Sub-Structure

The portion of a structure which is visible or which is above the ground level is called super-structure. The portion of the structure present underground is called sub-structure including the foundations and the basements, if present. 

Parapet 

Small wall provided on periphery of the roof for safety and privacy purposes is called parapet wall having a height of 1 feet to about 5 feet from top of the roof slab. One foot height is only recommended in those building where access to the roof is not available and is only used to retain the filling material of the roof finish on the roof surface. 

Boundary Wall



It is the outermost wall of a building marking the boundary of the area used to provide safety and privacy inside the building. In undeveloped localities, height of the boundary wall should be higher than eye-level of a common person but should not be so high that it blocks the passage of the wind or the sun. This height is about 5 to 7 feet, from the G.L. In developed areas, according to the bye-laws of the controlling authorities, the plot is to be kept open on at least three sides and inside a constructed block is made having its own outer wall with one or two entrances. This constructed portion is separately safe and provides privacy. So, in such cases, we may reduce the height of the boundary wall. Sometimes boundary wall is replaced by plantation only. 

Riser and Treads 

The height covered in one step of a stair is called riser and the width of horizontal platform required for one step of stair is called tread or going. For public buildings, riser is usually made equal to 6 inches while the tread is kept equal to 12 inches. 

Flight of Stairs 

A series of stair-steps arranged together usually in a single line is called a flight. Maximum number of steps in a single flight must not exceed 12 to 14. Longer flight may be dangerous and uneasy for the person using it. Further it request a longer space which is generally not available inside a building. 

Number of treads in a flight of stair is always one lesser than the number of risers because the top horizontal surface serves the purpose of one tread. Number of steps required for a stair may be found out as follows : 

Number of risers = Height to be covered in inches / riser in inches
Having decided the values for the riser and the tread, number of risers are then decided using the above relation rounding the answer. The value of riser may then be adjusted accordingly. 

Landing in Stairs 


The horizontal platform provided between two flights of a stair is called landing. It enables us to change the direction of stairs so that these may be accommodated in a lengthwise smaller space. Further it provides an opportunity for taking rest during the use of the stair. 

Foundation 

The portion of a structure under columns and walls which transfers load of the structure to the soil underneath in a safe way without excessive settlement is called foundation. The load concentration within walls and columns is generally much greater because these structural elements resist the load of greater part of the building transferred to them by the beams and the roof-slabs. The function of a foundation is to re-distribute this load over a larger area reducing the load per unit area (load intensity) until it becomes equal to the safe bearing capacity of the soil underneath usually around 0.5 to 1.5 tons / sq.ft. 

Find more about deep and pile foundation; find here

Consider the example of an object weighting 100 kg which is required to be lifted and carried by some distance. If one labourer is employed, it will be very difficult for him to lift the load. Suppose the same load is to be lifted by employing ten laboureres, the work will be completed quite easily. What happens in the second case? Although the total load remains the same, the load per person (Called load intensity) is reduced from 100 kg in the first case to 10 kg in the second case. 

Blocks masonry is being reinforced
Blocks masonry is being reinforced

In case of stepped foundation, brick wall is expanded below ground level in different steps. The increase in thickness of the wall in one step should be 2 ½ inches (1 / 4 of brick) on either side with a total of 4 ½ inches (1/2 brick). 

The height of each step may vary in multiples of 3 inches depending upon the required depth of foundation from the ground level. At the bottom of each foundation, lean concrete or a compacted mixture of brick – ballast with 25 % sand is to be provided; offset of this layer must be lesser than or equal to its depth (6” or 9 “), if detailed calculations of the loads is not possible, the number of steps are found out by dividing the wall thickness in inches by 4 ½ inches. 
Depth of foundation from the G.L. must be sufficient so that the foundation reach to a hard and durable strata with a minimum of 2-ft to take care of the possible erosion by the rain and to avoid the top soil layer having organic matter in it like roots of trees and grass etc. 

Lintel 

Lintel is a small usually concealed beam provided over openings in walls like doors, windows and ventilators. 

MKRdezign

Contact Form

Name

Email *

Message *

Powered by Blogger.
Javascript DisablePlease Enable Javascript To See All Widget