I have witnessed people that are, with the help of some bucket mounted on ropes, trying to extract the sand to use it in construction. Have you ever thought from where this cohesion-less soil comes from?
It is actually transported by layers of river due to its kinetic energy and inertia. So from here we can extract that if the soil is cohesion-less like sand and is fully saturated above its limit then it can flow like a liquid.
Definition of Soil Liquefaction
Liquefaction is a state of water- saturated, mostly cohesion-less soil whose shear strength is reduced to zero due to pore water pressure produced by vibration during an earthquake. The soil starts behaving like a liquid.
History of Soil Liquefaction
|Allen Hazen (1869 to 1930)|
Some effects of liquefaction after the 1964 Niigata earthquake
Relationship of Effective Stress and Pore Water Pressure
|Soil Liquefaction after 2011 Canterbury earthquake|
|Sand boils that erupted during the 2011 Christchurch earthquake|
Conditions of Liquefaction
Sand Boils due to Liquefaction
Types of Liquefaction
Effects of Liquefaction on Structures
Mitigation Measures for Soil Liquefaction
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Causes of Liquefaction of Soil