Different types of Bonds used in Brick Masonry


Different types of Bonds used in Brick Masonry


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Bond is the arrangement of bricks or stones in each course, so as to ensure the greatest possible interlocking and to avoid the continuity of vertical joints in two successive courses, both on the face and in the body of a wall.

Types of Bonds used in Masonry

OBJECTIVES OF BONDS


A bond is provided to achieve the following objectives:

(a) The primary objective of providing a bond is to break the continuity of the vertical joints in the successive courses both in the length and thickness of masonry structure. As a result, the structure will act as a bounded mass and its load will be transmitted uniformly to the foundations.
(b) To ensure longitudinal and lateral strength of the structure.
(c) To provide pleasing appearance by laying bricks symmetrically.
(d) To do masonry work quickly by engaging more masons on a job at a time.

Types of Bonds

(1) ENGLISH BOND


The bond, in which headers and stretchers are laid in alternate courses, is called "English bond".
The following are the salient features of English bond:
(i) Headers and stretchers are laid in alternate courses.
(ii) In each heading course, a queen closer is placed next to quoin header and the remaining bricks are laid as headers.
(iii) Every alternate header in a course comes centrally over the joint between two stretchers in the course below, giving an approximate lap of 2 ¼ in.
(iv) The same course will show headers or stretchers on face and back, if the thickness of the wall is an even multiple of half bricks (e.g. 9 in, 18 in, 27 in, etc.)
(v) The same course will show headers on the face and stretchers on the back and vice versa, if the thickness of the wall is an odd multiple of half brick. (13 1/2 in , 22 1/2 in , etc )
(vi) The middle portion of the thicker walls consists entirely of headers.
(vii) Every transverse joint is continuous from face to face.





(2) FLEMISH BOND

The bond, in which headers and stretchers are laid alternately in the same course, is called "Flemish bond".
The following are the salient features of Flemish bond:
(i) Headers and stretchers are laid alternately in the same course.
(ii) Every header in each course lies centrally over every stretcher of the underlying course.
(iii) In every alternate course a queen closer is placed next to quoin header, so as to provide a lap of approximately 2 1/4 in.
(iv) Brick bats are to be used in walls having thickness equal to an odd multiple of half brick.



Sr No.
English Bonds
Flemish bond
1
This bond consists of headers and stretchers laid in alternative courses.
This bond consists of headers and stretchers laid alternatively in each course.
2
It is strongest of all the bonds.
It is less strong for walls having thickness more than 13 ½ inches.
3
It provides rough appearance especially for one brick thick walls.
It provides good appearance for all thickness of walls.
4
There are no noticeable continuous vertical joints in the structure built in this bond.
There are partly continuous vertical joints in the structure built in this bond.
5
Much attention is not required in providing this bond.
Special attention is required in providing this bond.
6
Progress of work is more.
Progress of work is less.
7
It is costly because the use of brick bats is not allowed.
It is economical because brick bats are allowed for forming this bind.


Types of Flemish Bond

(a) DOUBLE FLEMISH BOND

The bond in which headers and stretchers are laid alternately in each course, both in the face and back of the wall, is called Double Flemish Bond.

(b) SINGLE FLEMISH BOND


The bond provided in a wall with Flemish bond in facing and English bond in backing is called "Single Flemish bond" or "Cross bond". 

This bond combines the advantages of both English and Flemish bonds and simultaneously eliminates their disadvantages.

This bond is recommended where costly bricks are specified for facing in order to provide good appearance to the wall. Also, it can be made more economical by using cheap quality of bricks on the back of wall.

On the other hand, it weakens the overall strength of the wall because of maximum use of brick and existence of continuous vertical joints. Also, it can not be provided in walls having thickness less than 13 ½ in.

(3) HEADING BOND


The bond in which all the bricks are laid as headers in every course of a wall is called "Heading bond".
3/4 bats are laid as quoin bricks in the alternate courses to break the continuity of vertical joints, which increases the transverse strength but weakens the longitudinal strength of the wall. 
This bond is commonly used for constructing steining of wells, footings of walls and columns, corbels, cornices, etc.

(4) STRETCHING BOND

The bond in which all the bricks are laid as stretchers in every course is called "Stretching bond”.
This bond is provided for constructing 4 ½ in thick partition walls.


(5) GARDEN WALL BOND

This bond is used for constructing one brick thick garden walls, boundary walls, and other walls such as outer leaves of cavity walls to provide good appearance. 

Types of Garden Wall Bond

(a)  ENGLISH GARDEN WALL BOND

The garden wall bond in which a heading course is provided after 3 or 5 stretching courses is called "English Garden Wall Bond"


(b) FLEMISH GARDEN WALL BOND

In this bond a header is provided after 3 or 5 stretches in each course. 
This bond is also known as “Sussex or Scotch Bond".


(6) RAKING BOND

The bond in which all the bricks are laid at an angle other than 900 to the facing and backing of the wall is known as "Raking bond". 

This bond is used for doing inner filling of walls at suitable intervals to improve their longitudinal strength. 
The angle of rake between any two adjacent courses should be 90 degree to attain maximum transverse strength of the wall.
This bond can also be used as paving in case of brick floors, 4 ½  in thick.
Types of Raking Bond

(a) HERRING BONE BOND

The raking bond in which bricks are laid at an angle of 45 degree , strating at the central line and proceeding towards the facing and backing of the wall, is called "Herring Bone Bond"


(b) DIAGONAL BOND

The raking bond in which bricks are laid starting from the corner in parallel rows inclined to the facing and backing of the wall is known as "Diagonal bond".


(7) HOOP IRON BOND

The bond in which, after every fourth or fifth course of masonry, reinforcement in the form of longitudinal ties is provided for additional strength of the wall, is called " Hoop Iron Bond".       
This bond is provided for constructing 4 1/2 in thick partition walls


(8) MONK BOND

This bond in which two stretchers and one header are laid alternately in each course is called "Monk bond".
This bond is used in the construction of boundary walls.


(9) RHOM BOND

This bond in which brick/ tiles are laid in order to have straight horizontal and vertical joints in the facing is called "Rhom bond".        
                
This bond is used only in facing work to provide architectural beauty.



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Different types of Bonds used in Brick Masonry


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