November 2014
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The construction of dams ranks with the earliest and most fundamental of civil engineering activities. All great civilizations have been identified with the construction of storage reservoirs appropriate to their needs, in the earliest instances to satisfy irrigation demands arising through the development and expansion of organized agriculture. Operating within constraints imposed by local circumstance, notably climate and terrain, the economic power of successive civilizations was related to proficiency in water engineering.



Prosperity, health and material progress became increasingly linked to the ability to store and direct water. In an international context, the proper and timely utilization of water resources remains one of the most vital contributions made to society by the civil engineer.

Dam construction represents a major investment in basic infrastructure within all nations. The annual completion rate for dams of all sizes continues at a very high level in many countries, e.g. China, Turkey and India, and to a lesser degree in some more heavily industrialized nations including the United States.


Name of the Book


Hydraulic Structures

Authors of the Book


P. Novak, A.I.B, Moffat, C. Nalluri and R. Narayanan

Contents of the Book

Dam Engineering
Elements of Dam Engineering
Embankment dam engineering
Concrete dam engineering
Dam outlet works
Energy dissipation
Gates and valves
Dam Safety: Instrumentation and Surveillance
Part 2 Other Hydraulic Structures
River Engineering
Diversion Works
Cross Drainage and drop structures
Inland Waterways
Hydroelectric power development
Pumping stations
Waves and offshore engineering
Coastal engineering
Models in hydraulic engineering


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Civil Engineering as a field and as a career is not as easy as it seems, Civil Engineers work in fields for countless hours, have to work in Sundays as well. But even then the tough life have many crazy things that can happen to make your lips smile a but. 

The post I am writing today is to take a break from the hectic routine and lets have some fun and some smiles on our face. These funny civil engineering pictures are taken from various internet sources, most you might have gone through them but lets celebrate and lets enjoy that we are happy civil engineers. 


\
When you will work in field sun will make you darker



When you will work in the field as civil engineer you get stronger than Superman.


That is why we say surveying is a heart of civil engineer.

This show how busy we civil engineers are. 

This picture shows what actually civil engineers do :) 



Some mistakes Past Civil Engineers made

Difference between architects and civil engineers

Civil Engineer at his interview

Yeah cock making a survey.

This is how site engineers are different. 

First ever Camel employed as chief Surveyor 

If you are an engineering student you must already know this face :P 

If you havn't done this thing you actually havn't done surveying in your life. 

This is how Civil Engineering Changed my Life

If World doesn't have Civil Engineers.

Trust me i am a civil engineer

Best example of hurdle removing in surveing

Site Engineers requesting for leave from site. 


Happy Birthday Civil Engineers
And this is why roadwork takes months to complete

He is a civil engineer always single but never available.

How you live your life as a civil engineer

These are also civil engineers. 

When civil engineers fail

What actually civil engineers do

Marriage of a civil engineer

How civil engineer works at height.

Life without Civil Engineer

Civil Engineer in a hurry. 

When you are in trouble and You need to get to the target This is how it works 

The effects of natural aggregates on the properties of concrete

Concrete is defined as a workable mixture of a cementations material mostly cement mixed in suitable proportion with fine and coarser aggregate along with water.

Concrete depending upon reinforcement is of two types, plain cement concrete (P.C.C) and reinforced concrete (R.C.C).
Download Advanced Concrete Technology 

Concrete has specific advantages over other structural materials like timber and steel structures. The only draw back of concrete is its poor tensile strength that is compensated with steel bars used in the concrete.
This book of advance concrete technology, is a very comprehensive book for practicing engineers that deals with concrete, its pouring with pumps etc.

Title of the Book

Advance Concrete Technology
Constituent Materials

Authors of the Book

John Newman
Ban Seng Choo

Contents

Cements
Calcium Aluminate Cements
Cementitious Additions
Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout
Geology, Aggregates and classification
Aggregate prospecting and processing
Lightweight aggregate manufacture


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Dampness is the cause, reason and initiator of many defects and diseases in all sorts of construction from roads and transport systems to building and housing facilities. It might be a headache for you in rainy season and it might not let you sleep easily because of the danger and consequences of its presence. This post will let you know how to treat if your walls or building is being effected by dampness as well as will give you remedial measure that will ensure safety of your structure from all such devastating defects.

Dampness in walls

Before applying any remedial measure to a damp wall there should be free escape for any water that has already entered in the wall.

Silica Solution is transparent and very effective in resisting dampness.

Internal Treatment of walls 

Internal treatment of affected walls would consist of removing the old plaster, applying a slurry coat of neat cement with a water proofing compound and then cement rendering with a dense mortar, of 1:2 with integral water proofer added.

Another internal treatment for damp walls is the application of an impervious coating of some material or a coating of bitumen or tar followed by blinding with sand and plastering.

Preventing Dampness in walls

The following methods are also used for preventing dampness in walls

a) Two parts by weight of coal tar and one part by weight of pitch are put in a vessel, heated and stirred, until the mixture is sufficiently liquid. It is then applied on walls, and is found to keep out dampness very wall.
b) Spray or paint the walls with a solution of sodium silicate, followed by a solution of calcium chloride, which forms an insoluble silicate.

If dampness is confined to one position near ground floor level above the D.P.C., it may be due to a hole or crack in D.P.C. through which moisture can pass into the wall alone.
Dampness below ground level may be due to lack of sub-soil drainage, absence of vertical D.P.C.

Repelling Materials

Water repelling compounds are mixed in cement to make it water repellant, Examples are;
a) Chemically active ….. sodium and potassium soaps
b) Chemically inactive ….. calcium soaps and resin oils

Environmental engineering is essential for development of facilities for protection of the environment and for the proper management of natural resources. The environmental engineer places special attention on the biological, chemical, and physical reactions in the air, land, and water environments and on improved technology for integrated management systems, including reuse, recycling, and recovery measures.


Importance of Environmental engineering can be readily comprehensible while looking at the changes we are observing here and there relating to climate change, global warming etc. these and some similar phenomenon are commonly being used these days.


This handbook of environmental engineering brings for you in detail the introduction as well as the guidelines for all the problems along with the techniques used to solve the issues and problems regarding our environment

Title of the Book

Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering

Edition of the Book

Second Edition

Author of the Book

Robert A. Corbitt

Contents of the Book

Chapter 1 Environmental Engineering
Chapter 2 Environmental Legislation
Chapter 3 Air and Water Quality Standards
Chapter 4 Air Quality Control
Chapter 5 Water Supply
Chapter 6 Waste water Disposal
Chapter 7 Storm Water Management
Chapter 8 Solid Waste
Chapter 9 Hazardous Waste
Chapter 10 Environmental Assessment

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Quantity surveyor can be regarded as the initiator of any project, once the project is planned the most important initial step is to quantify the quantities and estimate the rates and prepare a BOQ which is called bill of quantities that contains the unit rates of various items along with the quantity of the material used in that project.

Quantity surveyor is needed in contractors as well as consulting firms that helps the client in preparation of the various bill of quantities.  Quantity surveyor is a very diversified field that needs experience and in-depth knowledge of various construction phases. Like a planning engineer quantity surveyor first has to quantify the project prior the project is not started.

This book can be regarded as a must to have book for a quantity surveyor as it contains a step by step procedures and calculation examples that is required for a successful quantity surveyors.
Download Quantity Surveyor's Pocket Book for free

Title of the Book

Quantity Surveyor’s Pocket Book

Author of the Book

By Duncan Cartlidge

Contents


1. The Quantity surveyor and the construction industry
2. Forecasting Costs and Value
3. Measurement and Quantification
4. Procurement
5. Pricing and Tendering
6. Contract Procedure, administration and organization
7. Final Account

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Reinforcement in the form of steel or synthetic strips called geo-strips are placed within an embankment, containing soil in various layers compacted mechanically; the granular material of embankment is linked by means of friction. The embankment becomes a self supporting structure, such a structure is called reinforced earth structure.

Earth Reinforced with Geo-strips and Reinforced Earth Panels



Concept

Construction of reinforced earth is a very simple process. The principle concept of reinforced earth is similar to that of a reinforced concrete that contains steel, aggregates and fines. In reinforcing earth process we reinforce the earth by means of steel or synthetic geo-strips.

Stresses that are generated within the embankment is transferred and resisted by these reinforcing strips. 
Concept of Reinforced Earth Works (REW)


History

Constructions using these techniques are known to have existed in the 5th and 4th millenniums B.C. Since early civilizations, man has attempted to use soil with other materials to enable it for being used for his necessities. Typical early use includes us of branches of tree etc. to support tracks over marshy areas and to build hutments. Structures are also built by insects and birds using mud and leaves.  These are all familiar sights even today. This kind of principle is also used in building parts of Great Wall of China and the Babylonian Ziggurats i.e. temples.
Great Wall of China

In the 19th Century Passel used tree branches to reinforce back fills in order to reduce the earth pressure and thereby economize the retaining walls. 

Textile material was perhaps first used in road construction in south Carolina in the early 1930s. The first use of a woven synthetic fabrics for erosion control was made in 1958 by Barrett.

Construction

Reinforced earth system consists of following items;

a) Facing or the skin of the embankment
b) Reinforcing geo-synthetic strips
c) Soil in lifts or layers

During the construction phase we first do a lean within the boundary of embankment upon which the reinforced earth panels or skin of the reinforcement is placed. In this boundary of panels we place the selected material containing fines and gravels in lifts or layers. Each lift is mechanically stabilized by using a roller. We in this case don’t use sheep foot roller or vibratory roller, we use simple steel drum roller to do the compaction as well as ensuring stability of the structure.

The skin or reinforced earth panels have a path or passage for geo-synthetic strips which is called connectors mostly they are in C shape so they are called C-Connectors.
A bridge Abutment



These strips after passing through C-Connector is jointed with a reinforced steel bars placed at center in a specified distance. With each lift the process repeats and as a result we get a well compacted reinforced earth embankment. Water sealant foam is applied between each panels to ensure it as a water tight structure.

Advantages

Following are some of few positivity in Reinforced Earth Works

Reinforced Earth Panels Facing
a) Easy Placement

Construction is repetitive and simple, panels, strips, granular fill and then compaction

b) Positive Connection

Galvanized reinforcing strips are connected to concrete panels with structural bolts

c)    Engineered Backfill

Alternating layer of reinforcing strips and backfill are applied and compacted.

d)   Structural Facing

TerraClass facing panels are easily handled by placement crew.

Building and civil engineering is a demanding and exciting process in which the constructions built provide enduring testimonies to the imagination, skill and initiative of all those concerned. The understanding of these process includes a knowledge of what buildings are made of, how they are put together, how they stay up, how they work, how they are operated and maintained, how they are repaired and even how they are pulled shown. The studies involved, of both process and product, are interdisciplinary, embracing many and varied skills and specialism.


Soil Mechanics 3rd Edition by R. Whitlow

In this post i am going to share with you a book that contains all the basics that is required for geotechnical engineering which is a branch of civil engineering dealing with investigating the soil and doing the calculations related to soil mechanics. 

The book contains in-depth basic knowledge of every thing related to soil, tests, definitions, articles etc. 

Title of the Book

Basic Soil Mechanics

Edition of the Book

Third Edition

Writer of the Book

R. Whitlow

Contents 

Chapter 1 Origins and composition of soil
Chapter 2 Classification of soils for engineering purposes
Chapter 3 Basic physical properties of soils
Chapter 4 Water in soil: Occurrence and effects
Chapter 5 Water in soil: Permeability and seepage
Chapter 6 Stresses and strains in soils
Chapter 7: Measurement of shear strength
Chapter 8 Earth pressure and retaining walls
Chapter 9: Stability of slopes
Chapter 10: Soil compressibility and settlement
Chapter 11: Bearing capacity of foundations
Chapter 12: Site investigations and in-situ testing

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MKRdezign

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