April 2014
3d Modeling Softwares 3D Printed 3d Softwares abutment Abutment Designs ACI ACI code Adhesion Adhesives Admixtures Advantages Agricultural Engineering Airport and Runway engineering Airports AKB Alam Khan Amazing Bridges amazing buildings America American Local Construction news Amsterdam Analysis Anchorage Length Arch Bridges Arch Dam Design Arch Dam Pdf Arch Dams Architect Architecture ARE Art Articles Articulating Concrete Block Aspahlt Asphalt Asphalt Pavements Asphaltic Concrete Assistant Director Assistant Engineer Jobs in University Associate Civil Engineering At grade Intersections At Site Testing Autocad Jobs Autocad Plans Autocad Projects Autodesk B.E. Jobs B.Sc. Jobs B.Tech Jobs Backfill Grouting Bahria Foundation Bahria Town Balochistan Bamboo Bamboo as Construction Material Bar Bending Schedule Barrage Basic Civil Engineering Basics BBS Beam Beam Supports Beam Types Bending Moment Bentley Bidding Manager Bitumen BMD Bonds in Brick Masonry Book Book by William M.C. Mckenzie Books Books by A Books by Animesh Das Books by Douglas Thorby Books by Duncan Cartlidge Books by E. John Finnemore Books by G.C. Mays Books by Joseph B. Franzini Books by Partha Chakroborty Books by S.K. Roy Books by Saeid Eslamian Books on Concrete Books on Earthquakes Books on Fluid Mechanics Books on Materials Books on Project Management Box Girder Box Girder Birdges Brazil Construction News Brazil News Brick Masonry Bricks Bridge Bridge Construction Bridge Design Bridge Engineering Bridges Bridges in China Bridges in Netherlands Bridges in Spain Bsc Jobs BSc. Engg. Jobs Building Construction Building Design Building Drawing Building Jobs Building joints Buildings Canal Lining Canal Road Career Case Studies Case Study CE Videos CED Cement Cement Tests CFRP China China Construction News China Pakistan Economic Corridor China Project Circular Slab Civil Contractor Jobs Civil Engineer Civil Engineer fun Civil Engineer in Education Civil Engineering Civil Engineering Articles Civil Engineering Book Civil Engineering Books Civil Engineering books by Alan Twort Civil Engineering Books by Asif Syed Civil Engineering Books by Gordon Rees Civil Engineering Books by R.M. Khatsuria Civil Engineering Books by Tyler G. Hicks Civil Engineering Calculator Civil Engineering Career Civil Engineering Clips Civil Engineering Companies Civil Engineering Conference Civil Engineering Consultants Civil Engineering Contracts Civil Engineering Degree jobs Civil Engineering Dictionary Civil Engineering Discoveries Civil Engineering Documentaries Civil Engineering Documents Civil Engineering Download Civil Engineering Downloads Civil Engineering Drawing Civil Engineering Education Civil Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering Events Civil Engineering Events Webinar Civil Engineering Experiments Civil Engineering Formulas Civil Engineering Fun Civil Engineering Handbooks Civil Engineering Innovations Civil Engineering Islamabad Companies Civil Engineering Jobs Civil Engineering Jobs in Client Civil Engineering Jobs in Lahore Civil Engineering Jobs in Oil Industry Civil Engineering Jobs in Pakistan Civil Engineering jobs in Sheikhupura Civil Engineering Jokes Civil Engineering Lab Experiments Civil Engineering Laboratory Civil Engineering Magazines Civil Engineering Management Civil Engineering Manuals Civil Engineering Materials Civil Engineering MCQs Civil Engineering News Civil Engineering Practice Civil Engineering Presentations Civil Engineering Projects Civil Engineering Questions Civil Engineering Reports Civil Engineering Research civil Engineering Software Civil Engineering Softwares Civil Engineering Students Civil Engineering Subjects Civil Engineering Tenders Civil Engineering Terminologies Civil Engineering Terms Civil Engineering Text Books Civil Engineering Tips Civil Engineering Tools Civil Engineering Tutorials Civil Engineering Universities Civil Engineering Videos Civil Engneering Projects Classification of Arch Dam Client Jobs Clips Cloverleaf Interchange Cochin International Airport Codes Coduto Cofferdams Collapse Communication & Works Department Companies Company Profile Competitions Concepts Concrete Concrete Books Concrete Concepts Private Limited Concrete Construction Concrete Defects Concrete Experiments Concrete Grout Concrete Mixing Concrete Pavement Concrete Quality Concrete Repair Concrete Research Concrete Research Projects Concrete Structure Concrete Structures Concrete Technology Concrete Tests Concrete Types Concreting Conditions for Soil Liquefaction Conferences Conflexpave Construction Construction Cost Construction Defects Construction Jobs Construction Management Construction Management Jobs Construction Manager Construction Manager Jobs Construction Materials Construction News Construction News India Construction news Turkey Construction of Dams Construction Problems Construction Projects Construction Supervision Jobs Construction Techniques Consultant Companies Consultant Jobs Contract Documents Contract Jobs Contract Management Contract Managers Contractor Books Contractor Companies Contractor Jobs Cost Estimation Cost of Civil Engineering Works CPEC Crises Cross Rail Culverts CV CV Samples CVs DAE Experience Jobs DAE Jobs Dae jobs in Government Dam Dam Engineering Dam Structure Dampness Dams Dasu Dam Data De-ice Pavements Deadliest Defects in Concrete Definition Degrees Density Deputy Director DESCON Jobs Design Engineer Design Jobs Design of Pavements Design of Structures Design Scape Development Length Dictionary Difference Difference between Director Director Civil Directory Disaster Management Documentaries Download Downloads Draftsman Jobs Drawing Drawing and Estimation Dredging Dubai DWG Earthquake Earthquake Buildings Earthquake Engineering Earthquakes ECSP Education Education News Effects of Earthquakes Effects of Sulfate Attack Eiffel Tower Emissions from Industries Energy Efficient Building Engineer Required Engineering Engineering Consultancy Services Punjab Engineering Drawing Engineering Hydrology Engineering Mechanics Environment Environmental Articles Environmental Engineer Environmental Engineer Jobs Environmental Engineering Environmental Engineering Books Environmental Engineering Jobs Environmental Failures Escalators Estimation Estimation Engineer ETABS Ettringite Formation Eurocode Event Events Events & Conferences Excel Sheets Executive Engineer Expansion Joint Experience Jobs Experienced Jobs Experiment Experiments on concrete Expos Extension of Time Faculty Jobs Failure of Structures Failure of Water Main Faisalabad Falkirk Famous FAQ FAQs Featured Fiel Tips Field Density Tests Field Problems Field Tests Field Tips Field Tips Books Field work Final Year Projects Flexural Formula Flood Control Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Books Fontys University Formwork Foundation Foundation Construction Foundation Engineering France Fresh Civil Engineering Jobs Friction Piles Frontier Works Organization Fun funny Funny Civil Engineering Funny Civil Engineering Jokes Funny Videos FWO General Geologist Geology Geotech Geotechnical engineering Geotechnical Engineering Books Ghaziabad Gilgit Glass Bridges Glass Construction Government Jobs Government of Punjab Green Building Green Concrete Green Technology Grillage Foundation Groundwater Grout Grouting Guest Articles Handbooks Headworks Health and Safety HEC Higher Education Commission Highway Highway Construction Highway Design Highway Engineering Highway Engineering Videos Highway Jobs Highway Marking Highway Materials Highway Roads Highway Videos Highways History History of Civil Engineering HMA Hollow Core Slabs Hollow planks Honeycombing Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge HongKong Hospital Projects Hospitals in Sakardu How to HSE Hyderabad Hydraulic Design Engineer Hydraulic Engineer Hydraulics Hydraulics Books Hydro Power Sector Civil Engineering Jobs Hydrology Hydrology Books Hydrology Softwares Hydropower Jobs Hydropower Plant Jobs Hydropower Projects Iamcivilengineer Ice Hotel 365 Images Impact Study Incoming Projects India India Construction News Indian Airport Indus Water Treaty Industrial Engineering Industry News Influence Line Diagrams Infrastructure Crises Innovation Inspector Jobs Institutions Interesting Interesting Bridges Interesting Buildings Interesting Engineering Interesting Facts Interesting News Interesting Projects Interesting Tower Bridges Interesting Transportation Internships Intersections Interview Questions Interviews Invention Iran Buildings Irrigation Irrigation Canal Irrigation Canal Lining Irrigation Engineering Islamabad Islamabad Companies Islamabad Consultant Companies Islamabad Jobs Islamabad News Islamabad Projects IST Istanbul News Italy Jack Jacking Force Job Job Mix Formula Job Openings Jobs Jobs in Bahria Foundation jobs in cnw Jobs in Consultant Firms Jobs in Hydropower Sector Jobs in Irrigation Department Jobs in Islamabad Jobs in Manazel Construction Company Jobs in Saudia Arabia Jobs in SSWMB jobs in Sukkur IBA Jobs in Universities Karachi Karachi Consultant Companies Karachi Jobs Karachi Projects Kelpies KEMU Jobs King Edward Medical College Jobs KSA jobs L.F. Webseter Lab Tests Laboratory Laboratory Experiments Laboratory Manuals Laboratory Tests Lahore Lahore Consultant Companies Lahore Jobs Lap Length LDA Lectures Lightweight Concrete Liquefaction Listing Local Local News Local Projects Locals London News Los Angeles Abrasion Test Magazines Management Management Jobs Manager Execution Manager Procurement Manazel Construction Company Marafie Foundation Marshall Marshall Flow Test Marshall Mix Design Marshall Stability Test Masjid Plans Masonry Masonry and Concrete Masonry Construction Masonry Structures Mass Transit System Material Engineer Jobs Material Engineering Material Research Matrix Analysis Matrix Analysis Books MCQs Meetups MegaStructures Methods Methods of Concrete Metro Bus Service Metro Train Project Metro Train service Mississippi River Bridge MIT Mixing of Concrete Mosque Architectural Plans Mosque Plans Mosque Structural Details Motorways MSc Jobs Namal Education Foundation National Logistic Cell Jobs Negative Friction NESPAK Netherland Structures Netherlands New New Ideas New Khanki Bridge New Projects New Technology News Nlc NTU Singapore Nyottingham Online Calculator Online Design Tools Overlap Length Overlay of Pavements Overlays P.N. Khanna PAF Pakistan Pakistan Airforce Jobs Pakistan Companies Pakistan Construction News Pakistan Consultant Companies Pakistan Consultant Firms Pakistan Engineering Council Pakistan Hydropower Projects Pakistan Jobs Pakistan News Pakistan Projects Palm Islands Dubai Parts of Bridges Pavement Pavement Design Pavement Distresses Pavement Engineering Pavements Paving Asphalt Videos PDF PDF Downloads PEC PEC Course PEC Islamabad Events Pedestrian bridges Percy Shaw Peshawar Consultant Companies Pheratic Pile Foundation Piles Planning Planning Engineer Planning Engineer Jobs Plant Construction Jobs Plastering Plasticizers PM PMU Pocket Book Population Forcast Population Project Post Tensioning Post-Tensioning Post-tensioning Jacks Pouring PowerSurvey PPRA PPTs Pre Stressing Pre-stressed Concrete Precast slabs Presentations Prestressing Prevention of Sulphate Attack Primary & Secondary Health Care Department Primaver Tutorials Primavera Primavera Database Connection Private jobs Problems Professions Project Project Acquisition Project Claims Project Control (planning) Manager / Engineer Project Engineer Job Project Engineer Jobs Project Management Project Management Books Project Management Course Project management Jobs Project Manager Project Manager Jobs Project Managment Unit Project News Project on Solar Energy Project Profile Projects Properties of Concrete Punjab Government QA/QC QA/QC Engineer Quality Assurance Quality Control Quantity Surveying Quantity Surveyor Quantity Surveyor Jobs Question Answers Quetta R. Hutchinson R.C.C Raft foundation Railway Bridges Railway Engineering Railways Raised Pavement Markers Rawalpindi Jobs RCC RE Recycled Construction Recycled Pavement Recycled Plastic Roads Reduce Emissions Reinforced Cement Concrete Reinforced Concrete Reinforced Earth Panels reinforcement Reinforcement Bending Schedule Renewable Resources Company Renewable Resources Jobs Repairing R.C.C Slab Research Research Projects Research Work Resident Engineer Resumes Retroflectors Rigid Concrete Pavement Rigid Pavement Rigid Pavements Road and Highway Road Marking Road Reflectors Roads Roboat Roller Compacted Concrete Rsearch Russia Construction News Saaf Paani Company Samples Samples for CV Samples for Resume Sand Boils Sand Replacement test Scholarship Scholarships Scotland SDO Seismic Activity Seismic books Seismic Design Senior Engineer Jobs Sewerage Treatment Plant SFD Shear Force Short Courses Sindh Solid Waste Management Board Singapore Site Engineer Site Engineer Jobs Site Engineers Site Manager Site Selection Skin Friction Skyscrappers slider slideshow Sludge Slump Small Bridges Software Problems Softwares Soil Soil Boiling Soil Cement Soil Engineering Soil Liquefaction Soil Mechanics Soil Mechanics Books Soil Mechanics Lab Manual Soil Mechanics tests Soil Salinity Soil Sciences Solar Energy Sponsor Posts Sponsored Sponsored Posts Sports Board Punjab Stairs Standards Steel Steel Structures Stone Masonry Strain Strain Hardening Strength Strength of Materials Stress Stresses in soil Structual Analysis Structural Analysis Structural Analysis Books Structural Dynamics Structural Engineering Structural Health Monitoring Structure Structures Studs Study Sub Engineer Sulfate Attack Sulphate Attack Superplasticizers Suppliers Survey Surveying Surveying and Levelling Surveyor Books Sweden Sweden Ice Hotel 365 Switzerland Tehran Flyovers Tendering Tendering Explained Tenders Tendon Grouting Tendonds Tendons Terminologies Terms Test on Concrete Tests & Interview Tips Tests on Aggregates Thailand Buildings Timber Engineering Timber Structures Tips Top 10 Trainee Engineer Jobs Trainee Engineers Tram Transportation Engineering Transportation Engineering Books Truss Truss Structures Tunnel Boring Machine Tunnel Engineering Tunnels Turkey News Tutorials Type of Foundation Types Types of Admixtures Types of Bonds Types of Bridges Types of Concrete Types of Intersections Types of Piles Types of Soil Cement Types of Truss U.S. Embassy Jobs UAE Jobs UET jobs UET Lahore Jobs UET Taxila UK News Under Reamed Piles University Jobs University Lecturer Jobs University Project Jobs UPADSD 2017 Upcoming Projects Upcomming Project Upcomming Projects Updates Urban Planning and Sustainable Development Conference USA USA Construction News USA News Vadose Vibration Video Training Videos Walking Excavator Wall Collapse Turkey WASA Waste Management Company Jobs Wastewater Treatment Water Engineering Water Lodging Water News Water Proofing Water Resources WaterCAD Webinar Webinars Weir Widening Wiley & Sons Wonders of World Wood Structures Workability Worked Examples Workshops World News Yngve Bergqvist Zaha Hadid

Meet  “Syed Ameer Ul Hassan” @ iamcivilengineer.com.

He is a graduate Civil Engineer from University of Engineering and technology, Taxila, Pakistan currently working as Deputy District Officer (Roads) Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan. He is a very rational and motivated professional. Here are few of the interesting lines he gifted us to share it with our fans of iamcivilengineer.com  

In which department you are currently employed? And what is your job designation? 
I am currently working in Communication & Works Department as Deputy District Officer (Roads) Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.

According to you which quality should be there in all civil engineers?
Civil engineers must have a strong instantaneous decision and verdict power; this will help them a lot while working in the field.

Which day can be regarded as “The most marvelous day of your life”? 
While getting my BSc. degree at Jinnah convention centre Islamabad.Pakistan

What you think regarding scope of Civil Engineering? 
Scope of civil engineering is enormously gigantic and infinite. As you know civil engineering is mother of all engineering fields, its scope is inestimable.

What do you think regarding GPA, Does it matters or not?
Well I think GPA doesn’t matter :D only luck matters :P

 What are your duty timings as a DDO (Roads)?
Duty timings are very erratic and variable. If there are enduring and ongoing projects you have to work 12 to 18 hours and if no project is there than you can relax more then you can imagine :D

 What do you think why civil engineers don't have a love story?
Well this is very interesting and exciting question,
Who say they don’t have? :P

 One negative thing you observed in civil engineering as a profession?
Well one negative thing I observed is that their personal life is affected badly and roughly due to their hectic field jobs.

 What advice would you give to a forthcoming student wanting Civil Engineer as a profession?
Well one and only advice would be to have a strong decision and assessment power and once you took a decision you should stuck with it, you should also apply latest and up-to-date knowledge to your projects because one downbeat I observed is that most of projects are being executed according to old specifications i.e of 1973!

From Editors Desk

I hope you would like this as our first entry in meetups[at]iamcivilengineer.com. This purpose of these meetups is just to motivate the students and civil engineers around the world with successful and big-guns of civil engineers throughout the world. If you think you yourself or any of your surrounding friends are among the ones we should publish then simply email us on; admin@iamcivilengineer.com or post on our page i.e. fb.com/iamcivilengineerdotcom
Don’t forget to share this story with your friends and buddies. Happy civil engineering :D

Solid Waste is basically defined as a material which has no value for the people, the people themselves are responsible for this trash and is not carried through sewerage pipes and as the name suggests is in solid form. There are a number of sources from which solid waste is generated, distribution of solid waste varies from area to area, and few of them are; Domestic, Commercial, Industrial, healthcare, agricultural and mineral extraction activities and accumulates in houses and other places.
Solid Waste Management System in Pakistan

Some other keywords that are considered as similar to this include Garbage, trash and rubbish.
Now if we talk about the management of this solid waste, termed as solid waste management, we mean it as generation, separation, collection, transfer, transportation and disposal of waste in a way that takes into account public health, economics, conservation, aesthetics, and the environment, and is responsive to public demands.

Common Types of Waste mostly generated 

The most common types of solid waste are:
Municipal solid waste
Industrial waste
Agricultural waste
Hazardous waste
The solid waste composition varies from region to region and time to time. There are following different types of waste.
Biodegradable waste i.e. could be decomposed naturally such as food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper, etc.
Recyclable material i.e. could be recycled again and again; such as paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics ,fabrics, clothes, batteries etc.
Inert waste i.e. not liable to decompose; such as construction and demolition waste, dirt, rocks, debris, etc.
Electrical and electronic waste (WEEE); such as electrical appliances, TVs, computers, screens, etc.
Composite wastes; such as waste clothing, Tetra Packs, waste plastic, etc.

Domestic hazardous waste & toxic waste medication; such as paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, shoe polish, etc.

Failure of SWM in Pakistan

The consequences of failure of this solid waste management system are disastrous for the health of the community and the smooth running of life in that region. Some common problems as seen because of this failure includes, land and air pollution, blockage of drains and water pollution in natural streams.
Factors affecting solid waste management
The success or failure of this management system is dependent on many factors and many areas are there to be considered like public awareness because you can’t hold of the garbage thrown every second on the local street by the so-called educated humans, similarly due to increase of population there is an unplanned city growth that causes troubles and difficulties for the authorities to handle such a large amount of garbage. Mostly in cities and municipalities in Pakistan there are although no proper system of disposal management or even if it is there the maintenance and proper functioning are not up to the mark. The other very important factor to be considered is the rate of urbanization with the advancements and development in countries the communities are shifting from rural areas and urban areas and thus more utilization of advance products and thus more garbage is there.

Solid Waste Collection system in Pakistan and its effects

In Pakistan the absence of a proper solid waste disposal system and huge amount of uncollected wastes posses great threat to the public health as they are the source of mosquitoes and cholera which transmit malaria and cholera later on. One of a very hazardous and un-noticed drawback of the waste disposal in Pakistan is that hospital and industrial waste is treated as ordinary waste.
The condition of waste management system from the collection of waste to its proper disposal is, to put it mildly, pathetic in Pakistan. Only 50% of solid waste quantities generated are collected by government services. However, for cities to be clean, at least 70% of these quantities should be collected.

Increase in the solid waste is due to increase in urban population, industrialization, changing consumption pattern and also effluent life style. Due to these trends many cities are unable to cope with increase volume of solid waste, especially in middle and low income countries. During the late period of 1900’s annual waste production ranged from 300-800 kg per person in many developed countries to less than 200 per kg per person in less developed countries.

In Pakistan solid waste management is a significant problem being faced. Despite of the fact that there are many polices being formulated for the protection of the environment from solid waste but these policies are only implemented in cities. In rural areas of Pakistan mostly open dumping is done.

A number of municipalities have deployed sweepers for waste collection but the service is reported to be irregular and limited to prominent administrative or commercial areas. Citizens are not provided with enough rubbish bins. In fact, those bins can only be found along the main roads. Those who live further away prefer not to take the trouble: the majority of home waste ends up being thrown away on empty plots.
Solid Waste Management consists of various stages including primary collection that is done from house hold to dust bin sites manually. Secondary collection is done from dust bin sites to land fill sites mechanically and final disposal is at landfill sites.

Integrated Solid Waste management (ISWM) is a combination of those activities that best protects the community itself and environment. For ISWM a sustainable approach is required by giving the stake holders to participate in the process of ISWM and share their responsibilities.

Some of the significant features of solid waste management shows that the composition of solid waste in Pakistan that comes from different sources have a high percentage of organic waste, that can be recovered via composting and recycling. In most cities of Pakistan poor collection and transportation of municipal solid waste is reported.

The estimated quantity of solid waste generation in Pakistan ranges between 0.283 to 0.612 kg / capital / day and waste generation growth rate is 2.4 percentages per year.  Due to poor solid waste management there are large number of communicable diseases and unhygienic environment being created.

Much of the uncollected waste ultimately finds its way into empty plots, farming land, pits and ponds. It creates an ideal environment for flies and mosquitoes to dwell on and is not only harmful for the people living in that area, but also for plants and animals.
In Pakistan Solid Waste management has not been carried out in proper manner and the condition is getting worse by the time. The major problem causing factors are rate of urbanization, composition of waste, scavenger role for recyclable separation and the capacities of existing municipalities for solid waste management.
For the change of attitude and behavior of public, education and awareness is very important. For this purpose we may use different strategies, e.g., education session for common man regarding disposal of garbage. By this way we can educate the common man regarding how they can play their role in solid waste management.


Conclusion and Recommendations


The recommendations that can be considered for the improvement of the current situation regarding solid waste management in Pakistan includes, raising awareness about consequences caused by solid waste pollution, role of government sector, NGO’s, Private sector collectively for solid waste management, legislation should be done which would be effective and find ways to implement it effectively, application of 3R’s (Reduce, Recycle and Reuse) concept in solid waste management. House to house collection of solid waste should be organized. Littering of solid waste should be prohibited in cities, towns and urban areas. Proper segregation would be vital for scientific disposal of waste. Developing legal framework and national guidelines for solid waste management that includes waste management rules and basic recycling rules.



Meshing is the task of partitioning a spatial domain into simple geometric elements such as triangles (in 2D) or tetrahedrons (in 3D). Meshes typically have to conform to boundaries. Furthermore, for many applications there are quality criteria that need to be met, such as ensuring that angles are not too small. Meshing is a huge industry, with dozens of companies selling meshing software, hundreds of companies using software, and a diverse set of applications, including graphics, geographic information systems, computer vision, and air flow and structural simulations.
Meshing of an element

Use of Meshing

In the past decade there have been many important theoretical advances in algorithm design for meshing related problems, but only some of these have made it into meshing software.
Lateral walls and semi-rigid diaphragms are composed of shell elements. The subdivision of these elements into smaller pieces is commonly referred to as meshing.
In Ram Frame, the size of the mesh is controlled by the “Maximum distance between nodes” parameter in Ram Frame – Criteria – General. When a lateral beam has an internal node at a column or brace end, the beam is segmented in the finite element model and the beam is represented by two beam segments. These finite element segments are denoted by the use of I’ and j’ in the results. The first segment ends are I and j’ and the second segment ends are I’ and j. Therefore, I’ and j’ are always the ends at the internal node.

Meshing types

Coarse: Faster computation; not concerned about stress concentrations, singularities, or warping. Not near changes in geometry or displacement constraints or changes in material including thickness.
Fine: Best approximation but at the cost of the computation time. Look for disproportionate stress level changes from node to node or plate to plate and large adjacent node displacement differences to determine if need to refine the mesh. Nodes should be defined at locations where changes of geometry or loading occur. Changes in geometry relate to thickness, material and/or curvature. A simple check, if you can, is to decrease the mesh size by 50%, re-run analysis, and compare the change of magnitude of stresses and strains. If there is no significant change, then ok. In most companies, all of this knowledge of mesh size will be known and might
be set a FEA control file.

In case of the slab supported on beams we know in actual conditions the beam is monolithic with the slab that means that beam acts as a T-Beam with the slab having flange the portion of the slab. But during modeling in finite element analysis the slab or area or shell element is acted separately and the beam is acted separately. To make them monolithic we do the meshing of the shell element and divide the panels in to various sub-panels or parts which would then be attached to the beam from all the separated segments.

Advancements in the field of computer aided engineering during the last two decades have been quite extensive and have led to considerable benefits to many engineering industries. Similarly the advantages can also be observed in the building industry where the softwares and tools which uses finite element have allowed the introduction of innovative and efficient building products along with development of accurate design methods.
Finite Element Analysis

Definition of Finite Element Analysis

According to one definition;
Finite element method (FEM) is a technique for numerical solution of complex structural problems. In this method the structural system (consisting of all the elements which make up a structure) is modeled by a set of appropriate finite elements which are interconnected at points called nodes. Elements may have physical properties such as thickness, coefficient of thermal expansion, density, compressive strength, yield strength, young’s modulus, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio.

Use of FEM

Traditionally, engineers have used laboratory testing to investigate the structural behavior of steel building products and systems subject to the expected wind and earthquake loads and to develop appropriate design rules. Laboratory testing was also used to develop new building products and systems. However, such reliance on time consuming and expensive laboratory testing has hindered progress in this area. The product manufacturers and designers often decided on conservative designs in order to avoid expensive and time consuming laboratory testing. However, advances in the field of computer aided engineering during the last two decades have changed this situation significantly in many engineering industries.

The finite element method (FEM) is the dominant discretization technique in structural mechanics. The basic concept in the physical interpretation of the FEM is the subdivision of the mathematical model into disjoint (non-overlapping) components of simple geometry called finite elements or elements for short. The response of each element is expressed in terms of a finite number of degrees of freedom characterized as the value of an unknown function, or functions, at a set of nodal points.

The response of the mathematical model is then considered to be approximated by that of the discrete model obtained by connecting or assembling the collection of all elements. The disconnection-assembly concept occurs naturally when examining many artificial and natural systems. For example, it is easy to visualize an engine, bridge, building, airplane, or skeleton as fabricated from simpler components. Unlike finite difference models, finite elements do not overlap in space.

A typical finite element analysis on a software system requires the following information:
1. Nodal point spatial locations (geometry)
2. Elements connecting the nodal points
3. Mass properties
4. Boundary conditions or restraints
5. Loading or forcing function details
6. Analysis options

Because FEM is a discretization method, the number of degrees of freedom of a FEM model is necessarily finite. They are collected in a column vector called u. This vector is generally called the DOF vector or state vector. The term nodal displacement vector for u is reserved to mechanical applications.
FEM Solution Process

Procedure

1. Divide structure into pieces (elements with nodes) (discretization/meshing)
2. Connect (assemble) the elements at the nodes to form an approximate system of equations for the whole structure (forming element matrices)
3. Solve the system of equations involving unknown quantities at the nodes (e.g., displacements)
4. Calculate desired quantities (e.g., strains and stresses) at selected elements

Basic Theory


The way finite element analysis obtains the temperatures, stresses, flows, or other desired unknown parameters in the finite element model are by minimizing energy functional. Energy functional consists of all the energies associated with the particular finite element model. Based on the law of conservation of energy, the finite element energy functional must equal zero. The finite element method obtains the correct solution for any finite element model by minimizing the energy functional. The minimum of the functional is found by setting the derivative of the functional with respect to the unknown grid point potential for zero. This is based on the principle of virtual work, which states that if a particle is under equilibrium, under a set of a system of forces, then for any displacement, the virtual work is zero. Each finite element will have its own unique energy functional.


Frontier Works Organization (FWO) invites applications from different parts of the country from the eligible applicants. Frontier Works Organization has given responsibility for the induction of the applicants on pure merit to the National Testing Service (NTS)


1) Fresh Graduate Engineers

ii) Civil Engineer
ii) Software Engineers / Information Technology (IT)

Eligibility

Bachelors (4 Years) / Masters in relevant field from HEC recognized or foreign universities. CGPA 3.0 and above or 75 % and above. Maximum age limit 26 years on 27th April, 2014

2) Fresh Graduate Management Trainees (MT)

Human Resource Management (HRM)
Finance / Accounts
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Marketing
Supply Chain

Eligibility 


Bachelors (4 years) / Masters in relevant field from HEC recognized or foreign universities. CGPA 3.0 and above, or 75% and above. Maximum Age limit: 26 years on 27th April, 2014
Associate Engineers
Civil , Mechanical, Electrical Surveying
Three (3) years Diploma of Associate Engineering (DAE) from recognized Technical Institute / Board.
Maximum Age limit: 25 years on 27th April, 2014.

Procedure


Go to www.nts.org.pk , sign up by using the CNIC form as a username and fill the application form before 8th Aril, 2014.
Fill the deposit slip of Rs. 800 and pay it to UBL, MCB, ABL, HBL.
Send the application form along with original deposit slip to NTS Headquaters, Plot No. 96 Street No. 4 Sector H-8/1, Islamabad.
Test Date: Sunday 27th April, 2014
Last Date of Submission of Application Form: Tuesday 8th April, 2014



Nayatel, a leading telecom operator of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, offering ultra-broadband internet, HD Cable TV and telephony services is now expanding its operations to Faisalabad and requires competent and dynamic professionals for the following posts:

Civil Engineer

Requirements: BE (Civil) from a reputed university having excellent academic grades with 3-4 years of related experience.

Job Description: 

Handling and executing civil works in accordance with government regulations, conducting field surveys and managing civil team independently.

Applicants must have excellent leadership, communication and interpersonal skills and should be ready to work in a purely work oriented culture. Nayatel offers excellent remuneration and allied perks.
Send your CV at
hr@nayatel.com
mentioning the name of the post in subject before
11 April, 2014

MKRdezign

Contact Form

Name

Email *

Message *

Powered by Blogger.
Javascript DisablePlease Enable Javascript To See All Widget